JazzRoc versus “Chemtrails”

Contrail Facts and “Chemtrail” Fictions

Archive for the ‘chemtrails’ Category

Introduction

with 44 comments

PAGE CONTENTS

STOP PRESS – PERSONAL COMMUTER? – INTRODUCTION – THE REAL REASON FOR “CHEMTRAILS”? – FREEFALL & TERMINAL VELOCITY – HOW TO MAKE SNOW – VISION – CONTRAIL Q&A – STAR’s RESOURCES – A SINGLE LONG-RANGE FLIGHT AND AN OCEAN LINER! – MY YOUTUBE PRESENCE – PEAK OIL – SNAKE OIL – AMAZING PLANE TRAIL – A SKEPTIC’S BOOKSHELF

Don’t forget my other pages, links and comments are one click away at the top right of the page

ICE CRYSTALS AND HALOS

Polar ice crystal samples

The link “Atmospheric Optics and more” will help anyone to understand the reasons underlying the many discrete halo features which are both probable and possible. It also gets a mention under “Ignorance” on my page here.

STOP PRESS

14th December ’11 – Free Fall and Terminal Velocity on this page
5th December ’11 – Ice Crystals and Halos on this page
18th January ’11 – 9-11 VORTEX in “Trails Seen from Space”
14th January ’11 – THE REAL REASON FOR  “Chemtrails” on this page.
18th December ’10 – CHAFF (& RADAR) in “Careful With That Cloud”
11th December ’10 – WAKES OF WAR in “WW2 CONTRAIL STORY”
02 August ’10 – OBZELITE in “Breathtaking quotes” in “Genuine Bull”
16th July ’10 – MORONS STUMBLE INTO OFFICE in “Driving Round Town”
10th July ’10 – JONES JOINS IN in “Jet Spray”
24th June ’10 – SNAKE OIL and more on my YT presence on this page
19th June ’10 – SUPERCOMPUTING THE CLIMATE in “Penrod”
13th June ’10 – CSI FLAKES CNUTS in “Contrails”
03rd June ’10 – FUN IN THE SUN in “Established”
19th May ’10 – MAKING THE 777 in “Me Driving Round Town”
05th May ’10 – HOLE PUNCH SATELLITE CHEMTRAILS in “Here”
23rd April ’10 – VOLCANIC ASS, ER, ASH in “Trails didn’t exist back then”
13th April ’10 – “TRUTHSEEKER” SITES BANNING HYPOCRISY on this page
09th April ’10 – OUTSIDE IN in “Not Coming”
07th April ’10 – THE STORY OF STUFF in “Stratosphere”
26th March ’10 – KSLA in “Jet Spray”
25th March ’10 – MY YOUTUBE PRESENCE on this page
4th March ’10 – MORE ABOUT VORTICES in “Trails Seen From Space”
23rd February ’10 – FALLACIES in “Established”
19th February ’10 – SONIC BOOM MEETS SUNDOG in “Stratosphere”
16th February ’10 – DISCOVERY? in “Another Page from YouTube”
11th February ’10 – 91177info in “Another Page from YouTube”
3rd February ’10 – CHEMTRAILS AND FALSIFICATION in “Careful With That Cloud”
2nd February ’10 – NOMEANSNO in “Not Coming”
15th January ’10 – THE WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION in “6 Porkies”
10th January ’10 – STAR’s RESOURCES on this page
08th January ’10 – “Chemtrails” video in “Bamboozled”
03rd December ’09 – “JET STREAMS” in “JET SPRAY”
29th November ’09 – “EXACTLY WHAT IS YOUR PROBLEM?” on this page.
27th November ’09 – “YouTube 3” in YouTube SLUGS IT OUT in “YOGHURTS”
12th November ’09 – “YouTube 2” in “YOGURTS” and “PEAK OIL” on this page.
23rd October ’09 – “CHEMTRAILS” in “Careful With That Cloud”
20th October ’09 – “GLOBAL WARMING IS A MYTH” reworked in “GLOBAL DIMMING”
15th October ’09 – “REVEAL EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE” in “6 PORKIES”
13th October ’09 – “YouTube 1” IN “YOGURTS”
9th October ’09 – “HOW TO MAKE SNOW” on this page.
6th October ’09 – “DEFINITELY” in “D BOOTS THE DIVA”
4th October ’09 – “CREPUSCULAR SHADOWS” in “Circle of Confusion”
27th September ’09 – “BOENOID” in “BAMBOOZLED”
26th September ’09 – “CONTRAILS” on this page
22nd September ’09 – “GW ROOM 103” in “Global Dimming”
8th September ’09 – “BLUE LIGHT SCATTERING” in “BAMBOOZLED”
1st September ’09 – “RUSHFAN” in “ROBERT”

20th August ’09 – “AEROSOLS” IN “6 PORKIES” and “(THEY ARE) LEGION” in “JET SPRAY”
13th August ’09 – “A BLACK HOLE” in “BAMBOOZLED”
11th August ’09 – “FRACTALS IN NATURE” in “ESTABLISHED”
8th August ’09 – “EXPONENTIAL TIMES” in “ESTABLISHED”
4th August ’09 – “THE END OF LITTLE GREY MEN” in “THE EARTH ROTATES”
29th July ’09 – SKEWED VIEWS OF SCIENCE in “STRATOSPHERE”
26th July ’09 – BALONEY DETECTION KIT in “BAMBOOZLED”
19th July ’09 – THE CASE AGAINST CHEMTRAILS and STARS15K’s REFERENCE LIST in “Careful With That Cloud”
12th July ’09 – MEAT in “LETTER”
11th July ’09 – AGW DENIALIST FRAUD in ““GLOBAL DIMMING”
21st June ’09 – UNCINUS added to “BREATHTAKING QUOTES” in ““GENUINE BULL”
20th June ’09 – Richard Dawkins’s book reviews in A SKEPTIC’S BOOKSHELF on this page (an article on Creationist Dirty Tricks to follow)
19th June ’09 – “MINNIS AT WORK” in
“Driving Around Town” and “STERN’S ‘DUMBEST CONSPIRACY EVER” in “SLEEPS”
9th June ’09 – “SOME REAL SCIENCE” in “PENROD”
6th June ’09 – “ISSUE (2)” in “ISSUE”
2nd June ’09 – “Genuine Professionals” in “Genuine Bull”
29th May ’09 – “Disproving AGW” IN “Global Dimming”
24th May ’09 – “The Skies over Britain” in “What’s It All About?”
22nd May ’09 – “WAKEUPCALLCHANNEL Control” in ““WWII Persistent Contrail Story”
21st May ’09 – “Friends” in ““Music from my Synth – Jazz/Rock”
20th May ’09 – “Big Gun FIRES” in “Global Dimming”
15th May ’09 – “A SKEPTIC’S BOOKSHELF” on this page…
10th May ’09 – “BREATHTAKING QUOTES” in
“GENUINE BULL”
9th May ’09 – “AMAZING PLANE TRAILS” on this page…
8th May ’09 – “Watts up with THAT?” in
“Trails didn’t exist back then”
7th May ’09 – “Global Warming Room 102” in “Global Dimming”
1st May ’09 – “TRUTH ORIGINS” in “Trails didn’t exist back then”
30th April ’09 – The Theory of Everything in “Established”
30th April ’09 – David Cenciotti’s Weblog in “D Boots the Diva”
29th April ’09 – Contrail Article by Airliners.net in “Contrails”
28th April ’09 – Website “ChemCon Alert” arrives in “Circle of Confusion”
23rd April ’09 – Contrailscience Comedy Spot in “Contrails”
22nd April ’09 – Ian Plimer is convincing in “Global Dimming”
2nd April ’09 – “Andrew Johnson” (to be cont’d.) in “Another Waste of Time”
25th March ’09 – “Will Thomas” (NOT cont’d.) in “Trails didn’t exist back then…”
thomas1

I think he DID believe it, but didn’t want his “punters” to do so. He CLOSED DOWN his comments section. I took a copy…

Personal Commuter?

INTRODUCTION

This blog is a compendium of most of my activities at first on most of YouTube’s “chemtrail” video comments boxes during the latter half of 2007, continuing on into 2008, where I was banned from YouTube (following a comments campaign against all the sites promoting their fraudulent presentation of a Boeing 777LR prototype aircraft as a spraying aircraft). I then spent time at David Icke’s website forum, the Outlaw website forum, and “All Aircraft are Not Involved”. All of these promoted chemtrail speculation, without allowing contrary views.
As I write in December 2011 I am subscribed to “Opposing Digits”, “ConCen”, and “League of Reason” website forums, but have spent little time there. Forums which are open to debate don’t cover this topic. Forums which aren’t seem to be collapsing, or else have hardened their ranks against debunking – as if it were the greater sin…

The National Gas Turbine Establishment, Pyestock, Hants
The National Gas Turbine Establishment, Pyestock, Hants

This blog uses hypertext, so you can click on it and read the references revealed.

My interest arose from my perceiving that the MAIN ARGUMENT of ‘chemtrailers’  – “persistent contrails are ‘chemtrails’ because ordinary contrails fade away” – is FALSE.

I am a scientist and engineer, having begun my career way back in 1962 as a student apprentice aeroengineer working at the National Gas Turbine Establishment, Pyestock.
https://jazzroc.wordpress.com/about/
Following an exposition on the nature of contrails, this blog is alphabetically-sorted under titles which are either the correspondent or the topic under consideration. It is often angry (a characteristic of chemtrailers, who believe they hold the moral high ground) but is worth persisting with, for it uncovers many fascinating aspects of this multiple paranoia.
In spite of what you may have heard:
Contrails are the only trails regularly produced by high-flying aircraft, and have been known to be persistent on occasion since 1922.
They are produced by either the freezing temperature acting on steam (which is the combustion product of the aircraft’s engines), or also the reduction in pressure of the air flowing over its wings bringing dissolved water vapor out of solution in the atmosphere.
There have been no cases of poisoning, no samples of fuel ever found to contain poison, no aircraft found ever to contain poison tanks, and no whistleblowers (out of hundreds of thousands of aircraft and airport workers).
The real reason for the increasing persistence of contrails is the increase in air travel, which has increased FIFTYfold since the mid-fifties.
In NO CASE have any of my many “chemtrail” correspondents EVER argued the SCIENCE of the matter.
Their normal response is to immediately label my argument (normally a scientific one) as “disinformation”, which leaves me rather baffled, and forces me to go on the offensive, and pick out the logical flaws (rich pickings) with which I am left. I am reminded of a quote from the late Andrew Lobacewski’s “Political Ponerology” which follows:

.

The psychological features of each such crisis are unique to the culture and the time, but one common denominator that exists at the beginning of all such “bad times” is an exacerbation of society’s hysterical condition. The emotionalism dominating in individual, collective, and political life, combined with the subconscious selection and substitution of data in reasoning, lead to individual and national egotism. The mania for taking offense at the drop of a hat provokes constant retaliation, taking advantage of hyperirritability and hypocriticality on the part of others. It is this feature, this hystericization of society, that enables pathological plotters, snake charmers, and other primitive deviants to act as essential factors in the processes of the origination of evil on a macro-social scale.”

.

I have (mostly) deferred to American English usage and spelling since that is the majority of origin. Text by anyone else is in italics. I have on occasion added comments (I’ve been learning too!) which I have prefixed with an asterisk*.
A word about people who have helped me directly and indirectly. First and foremost is Uncinus of contrailscience, who has helped me to confront the mysteries of WordPress, as well as providing me and everyone else with good advice and courtesy in both the physics of the atmosphere and the gentle art of reason.
And my thanks to Steve Andrews, the Bard of Ely, who put me on to this subject in the first place, argued furiously with me at first, became persuaded of my reasoning, and graciously became my champion. Steve has a heart of gold.
And a word about your comments. I’ll publish them when they genuinely advance everyone’s understanding. Hatemail, or uninformed dissension from anonymous people will be removed. Here we go…

hatemail

THE REAL REASON FOR “CHEMTRAILS”??

They are a MYTH constructed for the gullible by the cynical.
Advertising revenue is available to the cynically-employed. All they have to do is stimulate turnover on their site, in the manner described in “How to start a Chemtrail Scare for Fun and Profit” at my page entitled “Here”.

A recent note from a friend clarifies this:

FREEFALL & TERMINAL VELOCITY

A tribute to the pioneering of Col Joe Kittinger. You can make the distinction between the above terms here:

HOW TO MAKE SNOW

This shows a quick way to do this. Of course, the weather outside is minus twenty degrees. You’ll notice that water in its liquid and vapor forms wastes no time turning into a fine white smoke reminiscent of – a contrail.


Contrails are formed at even colder temperatures in the stratosphere, where the air pressure is two-tenths of what it is at sea level. But they too are ICE.

VISION

CONTRAIL Q&A

This I have shamelessly lifted from “Contrail Education” at:
http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/GLOBE/faq.html
Chemtrailers will often tell you that “authorities” and “the powers that be” will never give you information about chemtrails. This is quite true, but for the same reason that it’s hard to get information about fairies. The authorities are, on the other hand, eager to give anyone who asks information about contrails…
dancerfairy
Q: Where do contrails form?

A: Contrails are human-induced clouds that usually form at very high altitudes (usually above 8 km – about 26,000 ft) where the air is extremely cold (less than -40ºC). Because of this, contrails form not when an airplane is taking off or landing, but while it is at cruise altitude. (Exceptions occur in places like Alaska and Canada, where very cold air is sometimes found near the ground.) Thus, people who live under major air traffic routes, not people who live near major airports, are those who will see the most contrails. (However, some major airports are also under major air traffic routes, which can lead to confusion.) You can use an Appleman chart to predict contrail formation for your area. Of course, a contrail cannot form if no airplane passes through.
Q: Why are there more short-lived contrails than persistent contrails?
A: For a particular geographical location, it may seem that there are more of one type of contrail than another. Actually, the type and number seems to depend on the amount of moisture and temperature in the atmosphere where the plane is flying. If the area is fairly dry, then more short-lived contrails might be observed. If there is more moisture, such as along the east coast of the United States, there might be more persistent contrails observed. To look at observations from other areas, you might like to visit the GLOBE website and click on the Data Access button.
http://www.globe.gov/r
Q: What causes the swirling pattern in a contrail?
A: The swirling pattern in a contrail is caused by the vortices coming from the tip of the aircraft. A vortex is a swirling of air coming from underneath the tip of the plane and wrapping upward over the top of the wingtip. This is due to the difference in pressure caused by the curved shape of the wing. The process of having less pressure on the top of the wing and more pressure on the bottom of the wing provides “lift” for the aircraft.
Q: Why are we able to see contrails on some days but not on other days?
A: In order for the contrail to form, there must be enough moisture in the high levels of the atmosphere for the ice crystals to form around the airplane exhaust. If the upper atmosphere is very dry, contrails will not easily form, or will be of the short-lived type.
Q: Do contrails drastically affect weather patterns?
A: Originally scientists believed that the contrails behaved like cirrus clouds to actually make the climate warmer. However, there have been studies conducted that have scientists rethinking their earlier ideas about contrails. This is one of the major questions that has to be researched at NASA and one of the reasons we are putting so much emphasis on contrails. When air traffic over the US was halted after the 9-11 incident, scientists got a rare look at the skies with only a few military jets flying. They were able to analyze the effects of some of these contrails and realized that their earlier notions about contrails’ effects were not totally accurate.
Q: Has there ever been observation of rain from contrails?
A: Typically, rain clouds are low level clouds which are made up of water molecules. These water molecules then come together to form water drops (liquid) which eventually fall to the ground as rain drops. Since contrails are high level clouds, the moisture within them forms ice crystals which do not come together to form any form of precipitation (rain).
Q: Why are contrails white? Contrails are formed from the exhaust of an air plane. We usually think of exhaust as being black and dirty.
A: Almost all cloud droplets (and snowflakes) have a very small particle (aerosol) at their core. But the particle is MUCH smaller than the cloud/ice/snow particle. When light passes through the crystal, it is reflected or bent (refracted) by the cloud or ice particle, which makes it appear white to an observer. Therefore, what makes the contrail look white is the water (frozen into a crystal), rather than the exhaust particle. Note that sometimes the optical effects through these crystals can also produce colors, much like rainbows in water drops. You will only see these when the Sun-crystal-you geometry is aligned in certain ways.
Q: Why can we see a jet high in the sky, yet it is not making a contrail?
A: For a contrail to form there must be enough moisture in the air and the temperature must be cold enough to form ice crystals at the altitude at which the jet is flying. If the temperature is too warm or the air too dry, contrails will not form.
Q: There is a persistent contrail in the sky, and the middle portion of the contrail has disappeared. Is the disappearance caused by wind or air temperature?
A: For all or part of the contrail to disappear, there is a lack of moisture to maintain formation of the ice crystals. It may be possible for air currents to move drier air into the area of the contrail, which would cause that portion of the contrail to evaporate.
Q: Why are so many of the persistent contrails we see so narrow in width, almost a pencil line?
A: The type of contrail you are describing is a persistent contrail, and, in particular, one which is non-spreading. For a persistent contrail to spread, there must be enough extra moisture in the air for additional ice crystals to form. If there is a limited supply of moisture, a persistent contrail may form, but will not spread.
Q: In which layer of the atmosphere do we normally see contrails?
A: Contrails usually form in the upper portion of the troposphere and in the lower stratosphere where jet aircraft normally fly, generally between about 8 and 12 km altitude (~26,000 to 39,000 feet). They can also form closer to the ground when the air is very cold and has enough moisture.
Q: Is it possible to observe contrails as indicators of changing weather?
A: If a contrail is persistent or persistent spreading, then the upper atmosphere contains large amounts of moisture. If a contrail is short-lived, then the upper atmosphere is relatively dry. This was used by sailors and can be used today to somewhat predict the weather. Short-lived contrails may indicate fair weather, and persistent contrails may indicate an approaching change in the weather or precipitation. The weather signal is somewhat analogous to that of natural cirrus clouds.
Q: There were two planes in the sky. One was flying north/south and left a persistent contrail. The other plane was flying east/west and did not leave a contrail. Why did one plane leave a contrail, but the other did not?
A: The two planes were flying at different altitudes – air traffic control has rules for spacing flights in different directions – so that the north-south flight path contained more moisture or was at a lower temperature than the east-west flight-path. The amount of moisture in the stratosphere* can change considerably in a short vertical distance. It depends strongly on the origin of the particular air mass. There are also variations in the efficiency of aircraft engines, which can affect whether or not a particular plane will leave a contrail.

  • The stratosphere has different properties from the troposphere, which we are familiar with, because we live in it. The stratosphere is stable, and layered, and counterintuitively is COLDEST at its base – the tropopause. The layers of which it’s comprised vary in thickness from tens to thousands of feet. “Stratum” is the Latin for “layer”.

STAR’s RESOURCES

I’m happy to include here STARS15K’s reference list – all except my own site and some spoof sites. By leafing through this material and absorbing it, you could become sufficiently science-aware to be able to continue this blog yourself, for example. 🙂
http://pdf.aiaa.org/preview/CDReadyMASM06_778/PV2006_1414.pdf
http://www.airliners.net/aviation-articles/read.main?id=85
http://ams.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1175%2F1520-0450(1997)036%3C1211%3AAEMTPW%3E2.0.CO%3B2&ct=1
http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/94176.pdf
http://www.answers.com/topic/chemtrail-conspiracy-theory
http://www.answers.com/topic/contrail
http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/GLOBE/science.html
http://www.borderlands.com/contrails/contrail.htm
http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/wxwise/class/contrail.html
http://contrail.gi.alaska.edu/misc/Stuefer_HyannisOct04.pdf
http://contrailscience.com/
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/policy_guidance/envir_policy/media/contrails.pdf
http://facstaff.uww.edu/travisd/pdf/climatepapermar04.pdf
http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/climate/ipcc/aviation/038.htm
http://www.iangoddard.com/contrail.htm
http://www.iangoddard.com/contral2.htm
ftp://ftp.pa.op.dlr.de/pub/Gierens/TAC/Gierens_contrails_oral_060629.pdf
http://pdf.aiaa.org/preview/CDReadyMASM06_778/PV2006_1414.pdf
http://profhorn.aos.wisc.edu/wxwise/AckermanKnox/chap15/contrail_applet.html (this site has a graph for you to set conditions and will fly a plane with the expected contrail formation at the top)
http://www.scienceagogo.com/news/contrail_controversy.shtml
http://www.scienceblog.com/community/older/1997/B/199701880.html
http://www.scienceblog.com/community/older/1999/A/199900242.html
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/04/040428061056.htm
http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/media/news6-97.html
http://students.ou.edu/J/Thomas.A.Jones-1/contrail.html
http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/fgz/science/contrail.php?wfo=fgz
http://www-angler.larc.nasa.gov/satimage/products.html
http://www-pm.larc.nasa.gov/sass/sass-ref.html
http://deoxy.org/meme/AviationSmog_Talk
http://www.areco.org/pdf/ParticulateEmissionsJetEngines1996.pdf
http://www.csicop.org/si/2009-02/radford.html
http://biblion.epfl.ch/EPFL/theses/2004/2975/EPFL_TH2975.pdf
http://www.knmi.nl/velthove/aircraft.html
http://www.epa.gov/oms/regs/nonroad/aviation/contrails.pdf
http://www.scribd.com/doc/14605078/Contrails-facts
http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/pa1c/GRL22_1501-1504_1995.pdf
http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/climate/ipcc/aviation/035.htm (this link has many chapters, be sure and drop the menu down to get the full report.)
http://www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/7/13175/2007/acpd-7-13175-2007-print.pdf
http://www.skepdic.com/chemtrails.html
http://chemcon.2020oregon.net
http://www.dropletmeasurement.com/ (I just found this link on a chemtrail board. The poster claimed it showed chemspray planes. It doesn’t, it shows a company that does sampling and measurement IN SITU. I keep telling people that’s how a contrail would have to be tested, and this company can and does just that.)
http://www.contrails.nl/contrails-research/various%2001.htm
http://www.astro.ku.dk/holger/IDA/notes.html (This site is older and some links might not work. It is a good representation that contrails are studied all over the world, though)
http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/GLOBE/resources/activities/appleman_student.html
http://skeptoid.com/episodes/4027http://www.dhmo.org/
http://www.thebulletin.org/files/064002006_0.pdf A really well-done, balanced piece on geo-engineering. Not about chemtrails, but a good guide to use when considering that as a possible use/motive for chemtrail use.
http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/GLOBE/resources/presentations/contrails_scool.pdf
http://www.scribd.com/doc/13115866/Chemtrailscc-the-Not-So-Secret-Ingredient-022009 This is a pro-CT publication, but has a diagram of the chemical process of jet fuel through an engine and a statement that any metallic aerosol will remain suspended for days. These go against what I’ve been told by CT here. The conclusions reached, I do not agree with. Other research has shown that the barium in Stadis 450 after combustion is significantly small enough it might even NOT show on certain tests, being within the expected “norm” of background.
http://profhorn.aos.wisc.edu/wxwise/AckermanKnox
http://www.worldclimatereport.com/index.php/2004/04/19/leaving-a-trail/
http://www.atoptics.co.uk/rayshad.htm This is the entire site address, which is very cool. It also contains past galleries I have only begun to explore.
http://www.atoptics.co.uk/atoptics/contr1.htm This shows contrail shadows, aka ‘black beams’ or ‘black contrails’. There are two pages with explanations.
http://www.atoptics.co.uk/fz215.htm This page shows contrail shadows, but most importantly, two jets flying at the same altitude with different contrails. The reason? Something stated often, difference in the jet engines. One is more efficient than the other. So it happens, but for a known reason.

A SINGLE LONG-RANGE FLIGHT AND AN OCEAN LINER


What could they possibly have in common? (Except that they might share the same route.) Well it is this: in a saturated stratosphere, a five thousand kilometre flight of a long-range jumbo jet is able to release EIGHTY THOUSAND TONS of water ice into the air. This is the weight of a large ocean liner in water ice…
“No! Get away with you! This cannot be true!”, I hear you say. But it IS true.
From the paper “Contrails to Cirrus—Morphology, Microphysics, and Radiative Properties”:
http://www-pm.larc.nasa.gov/sass/pub/journals/atlas_JAMC2006.pdf
“The average ice water per meter along the length of the contrail is 16 Kg per meter.” That means a 5000 kilometer flight (THROUGH SATURATED AIR) would put down 80,000 tons of trail material… Whoa! Wait a minute! Isn’t a jumbo’s fuel load about 250 tons? So where does the rest come from? The answer is OUT OF THE ATMOSPHERE! Read the paper for yourself.
con-cirr
“Look up” say chemtrailers, “they are spraying you!”
Well, they are NOT. The ice formed by combusting kerosine for the plane’s jet engines is SEEDING the deposition of further ice out of the saturated air. Furthermore, that ice never falls directly as rain. Instead it evaporates into lower tropospheric air, and might, a day or a week or a month later, take its part in the country’s rainfall.
Sadly, the best region for smooth and stable long-distance flight is this very cold and sensitive region of the tropopause and lower stratosphere, and its occasional huge reaction sends a visual message of change to those people who neither possess or seek understanding of the science underlying it (and consequently don’t have the right to pronounce upon it) – chemtrailers.
But that “message of change” is distorted beyond meaning. At present, scientists say, the effect upon the atmosphere of all this deposition is “within the noise”, meaning that no significant changes to the weather have taken place. Fifty years from now, if air transport continues to increase at today’s rate, then persistent contrails will significantly affect the weather.
Ah, but fifty years from now we will have run out of oil…
DF-ST-90-05759

MY YOUTUBE PRESENCE

I am present at the YouTube channel “beachcomber2008“.

My main interest is in the development and promotion of a practical self-sufficiency in food and housing as a default state and natural right of existence.

…and contains within it such nuggets:

—-ANTARCTIC CHALLENGE—-
http://www.megavideo.com/?v=VST38YI4

—-SMALL CHANGE FOR BIG CHANGE—-
Ralph Nader has been about a bit….
Maybe his book is the other jaw of a pincer movement.

—-PERMACULTURE IS THE ONLY SUSTAINABLE FUTURE
as it is a process of healing both for the planet and the human soul
Both deeply practical and analytical, permaculture is OUR ONLY REAL HOPE

—-F-L-Y-I-N-G—S-A-U-C-E-R-S—A-N-D
—-R-E-L-A-T-E-D—M-Y-T-H-S—A-N-D
—-T-H-E—H-U-N-T—F-O-R—R-E-D
—-O-C-T-O-B-E-R—-
These began in Roswell, New Mexico, in 1947.
They were the result of REAL SCIENCE EXPERIMENTATION in the Cold War period immediately after the Second World War.
These secrets are now in the public domain.
Unfortunately, so is the “flying saucer” myth which emanated from the US gov’t’s PUBLIC FALSE EXPLANATION
Richard Muller explains all in this marvellous lecture.

—-E-M-E-R-G-E-N-C-E—-
“Emergence” is a property of Nature, which from the very simplest possible origin has developed an ever-increasing complexity.
At every point in time of this expansion and complexity increase, and triggered by the random event of the moment, Nature’s properties have exhibited, do exhibit, and will exhibit an increase in complexity by the addition of a new ecological form of existence – an additional plane of reality – an entirely new way of BEING..
The emergence of life from non-life is such a case, as is that of evolution and the emergence of plants and animals, the emergence of the human brain and language.
As Murray Gell-Mann states “You don’t need more stuff to get more stuff!”

The failure of our species to recognize this, along with its need to dominate and control itself, has caused us to commit our biggest error – RELIGION.
Only if, and not until, we to a man adopt a rational and natural approach to life, and forswear ALL religion as fiction, will we solve the Earth’s problems and travel to the stars.
——————————————

H. G. WELLS’S “WAR OF THE WORLDS” WONDERFUL QUOTES

“We have learned now that we cannot regard this planet as being fenced in and a secure abiding place for Man; we can never anticipate the unseen good or evil that may come upon us suddenly out of space.”

“Few people realise the immensity of vacancy in which the dust of the material universe swims.”

“By the toll of a billion deaths man has bought his birthright of the earth, and it is his against all comers.
For neither do men live nor die in vain.”

SEA WATER FARMING COULD BEAT GW
Using 38 species of salt-tolerant plants along 37,000 miles of desert coastland could save the planet for human beings.

WATCH MICHAEL RUPPERT
What we have been saying will happen IS happening right now.
We’re past PEAK OIL, and nothing will ever be the same ever again.
Considering the next three decades, life decisions from now on will always have a “or death” element to them, and it will be an ever-increasing element. The sooner that you consider making such a (better-informed) life-decision, the less threatening will be your future.
Be sure to watch this video: “COLLAPSE”
http://www.megavideo.com/?v=7SJYAHD6

CREATING EDEN
At present Man is a careless parasite of the Earth. My ambition is to see Man face up to the task of becoming the gardener of the earth. There is no finer ambition for the first sapient ape in the Universe than to create “Eden”… and for the first time.

MUSICAL HISTORY
Check out my musical playlist, which is a sporadic journey backwards through time sampling the music I enjoyed.

THE THOUGHTS OF EPICTETUS:
Be careful to leave your sons well instructed rather than rich, for the hopes of the instructed are better than the wealth of the ignorant.
Control your passions lest they take vengeance on you.
Difficulties are things that show a person who he is.
Do not seek to bring things to pass in accordance with your wishes, but wish for them as they are, and you will find them.
First learn the meaning of what you say, and then speak.
First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do.
Freedom is not procured by a full enjoyment of what is desired, but by controlling the desire.
A wise man does not grieve for things he hasn’t, but rejoices for those he has.
If evil is spoken of you and it’s true, correct yourself, if it’s a lie, laugh at it.
If one oversteps the bounds of moderation, the greatest pleasures cease to please.
If your brother wrongs you, remember not so much his wrongdoing, but more than ever that he is your brother.
If you seek truth you will not seek victory by dishonorable means, and if you find truth you will become invincible

About Me: I’m a very skeptical guy. To convince me you have to present me with incontrovertible evidence.
There are some obvious facts about life which appear to be insufficiently considered by everyone. Namely these:
i) People are in general too incompetent to be perfect bastards
ii) If you’re cold it’s better to put on a woolly than light a fire
iii) Your back garden can grow more food than you could believe, and
iv) You’re the first earth animal to have developed an intellectual capability, so respect nature, garden the earth and nurture all life.

In my opinion, if we hold the above in our forethought we stand every chance in building Eden.
We need to appreciate how much more powerful we all will be if we work WITH nature and not against it.
Religion is a great enemy of this approach (science – subjecting reality to analysis and devising strategies to improve upon it) and so I am a great enemy of it.

————————————————
WHAT TO DO WITH A CHEMTRAIL VIDEO

1. RATE it ONE STAR every time you visit.
2. FLAG comments which support the video with a RED THUMBSDOWN.
3. STATE clearly and simply in the COMMENTS exactly why you believe the video to be fraudulent or inciting hatred.
5. FLAG the video for incitement to hatred, and FLAG IT ONCE MORE for fraudulent claims if either or both is appropriate. STATE clearly and simply in the comments exactly why you believe the video to be fraudulent or inciting hatred.
6. WRITE to the channel explaining exactly why you have taken the actions you have.

—————————————————
The reason we have not been able to find any legitimate proof that chemtrails exist is because they simply do not exist. The term is an internet creation to make condensation trails aka contrails sound more sinister.
When you actually look at the facts you can see the argument in support of these chemtrails quickly reduces to nothing more than a bundle of pseudo-science, assumptions, misguided correlations and unqualified uneducated personal testimony.
I have yet to find for myself one argument for the existence of these chemtrails that does not skirt around the real results from real studies from real accredited sources. Instead, I have just found these arguments to resort to personal attacks and contradictory statements.
For example, how can one argue that the government is lying to us to cover this up and at the same time use government information taken out of context as the proof chemtrails exist? Logically, if this is the huge conspiracy, involving thousands of people, falsified studies and an extreme government cover up, wouldn’t it be the simplest thing for these conspirators to simply remove these links?
Of course, this is speculation on my part and should be taken as such. Though I have been a professional in this matter I don’t believe anyone should be convinced on my word alone just as I will never be convinced by your word alone.
What we do have, however, is science and legitimate information. Anyone can access these studies and weigh both sides of this argument and make an educated decision. For me the answer is simple; chemtrails do not exist and so this conspiracy does not exist.
Contrails DO exist. Everyday, the number of airplanes in our skies increases as does the number of contrails they leave behind.
Instead of trying to justify our paranoia with fictional conspiracies, we should be looking at what is actually going on in the world we have created for ourselves.
Our air is polluted, our water is polluted, our earth is polluted, we don’t need to create something like “chemtrails” to prove this. Instead of creating “government conspiracy” in our minds we should acknowledge the real perpetrators – ourselves.
We drive the cars, we fly in the planes, and we ignore the effect each one of us has on the environment around us. No one wants to see the blood on one’s own hands… It is easier to blame some external enemy than to acknowledge one’s own contribution to an increasingly polluted planet.
We desperately need to stop pointing fingers and start taking responsibility for our own actions.
We need to ask ourselves the hard questions; “What actions or inactions am I taking that contribute to the problem and what am I doing to create a solution?”
The answer is yours, and yours alone, to reconcile with yourself.
“As long as people believe in absurdities, they will continue to commit atrocities.” -Voltaire

Written by Manmanatee on August 4, 2009. (It took me almost a year to rediscover the originator. Ed – 25th July 2010.)

PEAK OIL






SNAKE OIL

A SKEPTIC’S BOOKSHELF

This is just the start of what I have discovered to be an over-ambitious project. I therefore welcome the assistance of ANYONE who has either read a book on this list for which there is an inadequate reference or description, which he or she can improve on, or knows of a book that should be on this list, and would kindly give me the info. I shall quote your entry. 🙂

The Millenium Project Bookshop – 96 books about Pseudoscience. (Courtesy of the Millennium Project.)

This is a collection of books related to the Pseudoscience category in The Millenium Project. All commissions from sales in the Health Fraud, Vaccination and Pseudoscience categories are donated to the Australian Council Against Health Fraud to help in the fight against quackery.

Pseudoscience

200% Of Nothing: An Eye-Opening Tour Through the Twists and Turns of Math Abuse and Innumeracy” by A. K. Dewdney.
One of the common threads through racism, medical quackery and pseudoscience is the abuse of statistics. Sometimes this is deliberate, sometimes it is just an indication of the ignorance of the speaker, but always it is a means of confusing or deceiving the listener. This guide to the absurdities of some mathematical claims helps to level the playing field.

The Age of Wonder : How the Romantic Generation Discovered the Beauty and Terror of Science” by Richard Holmes

Astrology : True or False? – A Scientific Evaluation” by Roger B. Culver and Philip A. Ianna
“Astrology: True or False?” offers a complete and extensive summary of available evidence on astrology’s basic definitions, concepts, and effectiveness. The authors’ research revealed thousands of predictions gone “bust” – from the start of World War III to claims about the existence of an “anti-Earth” orbiting on the other side of the sun. They studied the famous twenty-year cycle” of presidential death and disaster, the “moon cycles” of crime and murder in major cities, and the incidences of major personality traits in certain sun signs. Their conclusions, while disappointing to the determined believer in astrology, are nevertheless refreshingly rational.

Astrology : What’s Really in the Stars?” by J.V. Stewart
Rather than offering a blistering critique of astrology, Stewart reveals discrepancies within horoscopic astrology’s own framework to let the reader decide whether there is any merit to this ancient scheme of things.

Astrology Disproved” by Lawrence E. Jerome
Why do people believe in astrology? In these uncertain times many long for the comfort of having guidance in making decisions. They would like to believe in a destiny predetermined by astral forces beyond their control. However, we must all face the world, and we must realize that our futures lie in ourselves, and not in the stars.

Bad Astronomy : Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Astrology to the Moon Landing ‘Hoax’” by Phil Plait.

Bad Medicine : Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Distance Healing to Vitamin O” by Christopher Wanjek.

Bad Science” by Ben Goldacre.

The Beginner’s Guide to Winning the Nobel Prize” by Peter Doherty.
Bizarre Beliefs” by Simon Hoggart and Mike Hutchinson.

The Blind Watchmaker : Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe Without Design” by Richard Dawkins.
There’s a little story to tell about this link. As you might surmise, I have been acquiring these links by using a search engine, and normally taking the top item of the search return list as likely to provide the most succinct and accurate review – a BIG mistake when an arch-enemy of science such as Philip Johnson (a lawyer) has somehow subverted the search engine dynamics to put his “review” at the top of the returns – not just ONCE but FOUR times. The ENEMIES of science work deep into the long nights, using any and every means they can to diminish scientific progress and promote their fear-based myth culture. I know what I’m talking about here – Philip Johnson is a mightily-crafty individual who manages to conceal his LIES across hundreds of pages – if you take the trouble to analyse his weasel words you’ll eventually discover his lies and hypocrisy – his agenda. One cannot imagine ANY situation where the reverse (Dawkins “bumping” destructive “reviews” of Johnson’s books up Internet search engine lists) would EVER be true. What absolutely abysmal behaviour this is! So I now include this review instead:
Dawkins has never hidden his advocacy role in describing how evolution works and how poorly our culture understands what’s going on around us. More than simply anticipating obstructionists such as Michael Behe in Darwin’s Black Box, Dawkins aims his criticism at all who adhere to the Judeo-Christian assertion that humanity has some divine mandate to exercise “dominion over the earth”. Clearly, that belief will be the undoing of the species and perhaps life itself if it isn’t shed and a better understanding of the interaction of life attained. The best place to start attaining that understanding starts with this book. Buy it, loan it, give it to those who need to learn what life’s all about – our children. [Stephen A. Haines – Ottawa, Canada]
To Richard, my heartfelt apologies.
To You the reader, please let me know if you discover any other similar instances…

The Borderlands of Science : Where Sense Meets Nonsense” by Michael Shermer.

Bullshit and Philosophy” by Gary L. Hardcastle and George A. Reisch (Editors).

Bully for Brontosaurus : Reflections in Natural History” by Stephen Jay Gould.

Chemical Sensitivity : The Truth About Environmental Illness” by Stephen Barrett and Ronald E. Gots.
One of the unifying principles of ‘alternative medicine’ is the horror of chemicals. Not things, of course, like ricin and botulism toxin which are natural and therefore not chemicals, or cyanide which is not a chemical when it comes from apricot seeds. The only problem with the chemical-free vacuum of space is the radiation.

Climbing Mount Improbable” by Richard Dawkins.
Endorsements
‘A beautiful, barnstorming, thunderclap of a book’ – Mail on Sunday
‘A cracking good book on evolution’ – John Gribbin in the Times Educational Supplement
‘Mount Improbable … is Dawkins’s metaphor for natural selection: its peaks standing for evolution’s most complex achievements: the human brain, the squid’s eye, and the albatross’s aeronautical prowess … exhilarating – a perfect, elegant riposte to a great deal of fuzzy thinking about natural selection and evolution’ – Robin Mackie in the Observer
‘One of the most gifted storytellers of our generation … he is a missionary who writes like an angel. He is to Darwinism what Saint Paul is to Christianity’ – Mike Maran in Scotland on Sunday
‘The parables – rivetting biological narratives, enthralling as the Arabian Nights tales – continue to ring the changes. Yet the central message – that DNA transcends the significance of the organism – remains the same … organisms are merely vehicles for genes … This is vintage Dawkins’ – John Cornwell in the New Scientist
‘An elegant series of lectures on Darwinian selection … Dawkins continues a tradition of scientific writing from Galileo to Darwin’ – Ian Thomson in the Daily Telegraph
‘Dawkins has done more than anyone else now writing to make evolutionary biology comprehensible and acceptable’ – John Maynard Smith in the Sunday Times

Cosmos” by Carl Sagan.
The book of the television series.

Deception & Self-Deception : Investigating Psychics” by Richard Wiseman.

The Demon-Haunted World : Science As a Candle in the Dark” by Carl Sagan.
Science is not test tubes, atom bombs and pollution, it is a way of thinking that separates superstition from knowledge. It is a way of deciding what is real and what is fantasy. Many of the sites listed in The Millenium Project are here because this distinction is not detected or recognised.

Did Adam and Eve Have Navels?: Debunking Pseudoscience” by Martin Gardner.

The Dose Makes the Poison : A Plain-Language Guide to Toxicology” by Alice Ottoboni.
A common tenet of both ‘alternative medicine’ and loony environmentalism is that you can’t have too much of a good thing or too little of a bad thing. Of course, if you believe in homeopathy you would believe in anything, but in real life it is possible to have harmless concentrations of dangerous things.

An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural” by James Randi.

The Extended Phenotype : The Long Reach of the Gene” by Richard Dawkins.
‘One feature of life in this world which, like sex, we have taken for granted and maybe should not, is that living matter comes in discrete packages called organisms. In particular, biologists interested in functional explanation usually assume that the appropriate unit for discussion is the individual organism. To us,’conflict’ usually means conflict between organisms, each one striving to maximize its own individual ‘fitness’. We recognize smaller units such as cells and genes, and larger units such as populations, societies and ecosystems, but there is no doubt that the individual body, as a discrete unit of action, exerts a powerful hold over the minds of zoologists, especially those interested in the adaptive significance of animal behaviour. One of my aims in this book is to break that hold. I want to switch emphasis from the individual body as focal unit of functional discussion. At the very least I want to make us aware of how much we take for granted when we look at life as a collection of discrete individual organisms.’

Extraordinary Popular Delusions & the Madness of Crowds” by Charles MacKay.
This book was first published in 1841 and told about panics and hysterias of the past. Updating the book to today would just require the addition of a chapter on the Internet stock craze, an update to the witchcraft chapter to include mention of recovered memory syndrome, satanic ritual abuse and alien abductions, and a new chapter about Y2K madness.

Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science” by Martin Gardner.
This is an extremely depressing and sad book, because it was written more than 50 years ago and it reads like it was written yesterday. Who would have thought that idiocies like scientology, chiropractic, homeopathy, perpetual motion machines, belief in flying saucers, and the nonsense about Atlantis and the pyramids would survive into the twenty-first century? The book is subtitled ‘A study in human gullibility’. Tragic.

Fear of Food : Environmentalist Scams, Media Mendacity, and the Law of Disparagement” by Andrea Arnold.
Half the people in the world go to sleep hungry and what food they can get is inadequate and poor, yet people keep telling us that our food is dangerous and we should not do things that could produce safe, nutritious food for people who need it.

The Flamingo’s Smile : Reflections in Natural History” by Stephen Jay Gould.

The Flight from Science and Reason” by Paul R. Gross, Norman Levitt and Martin W. Lewis.

Flim Flam! Psychics, ESP, Unicorns, and Other Delusions” by James Randi.
‘I am constantly amazed by the things that people will believe in. This book is a classic exposure of nonsense, much of which has somehow survived into the twenty-first century.’

Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries : Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology” by Kenneth L. Feder.

Full Facts Book of Cold Reading” by Ian Rowland.
This is the definitive book on cold reading. It explains everything there is to know about this limitless technique! How can you apparently tell complete strangers about names, dates and events that mean something to them? This book, the most authoritative ever written on cold reading, explains it all! Learn how to do the trick even better than John Edward does it.

Goddess Unmasked : The Rise of Neopagan Feminist Spirituality” by Philip G. Davis.

Gulliver’s Travels” by Jonathon Swift.

Has Science Found God? The Latest Results in the Search for Purpose in the Universe” by Victor Stenger.

Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes” by Stephen Jay Gould.

Higher Superstition : The Academic Left and Its Quarrels With Science” by Paul R. Gross and Norman Levitt.
There is a famous painting by Goya called ‘The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters’. It is what this site is about and what Gross and Levitt’s book is about. It has taken centuries to refine science as a means of discovering and knowing the truth, yet science, reason and rationality are under attack by second-rate minds who want to put us and reason back to sleep.

How Mumbo-jumbo Conquered the World” by Francis Wheen.

How Not to Test a Psychic: Ten Years of Remarkable Experiments With Renowned Clairvoyant Pavel Stepanek” by Martin Gardner.

How to Think about Weird Things : Critical Thinking for a New Age” by Theodore Schick and Lewis Vaughn.

How We Believe : The Search for God in an Age of Science” by Michael Shermer.
Shermer makes the distinction between belief, non-belief and unbelief, and describes his own transition from one state to another. Religion and Science have different roles in society, and this book looks at the boundaries and overlaps which are legitimate for each.

Humbug!” by Jef and Theo Clark.

In Pursuit of Satan : The Police and the Occult” by Robert D. Hicks.
Influence” by Robert B. Cialdini.

Investigating the Unexplained” by Melvin Harris.

Leviathan” by Thomas Hobbes.

Making Monsters : False Memories, Psychotherapy, and Sexual Hysteria” by Richard Ofshe and Ethan Watters.

The Mask of Nostradamus : The Prophecies of the World’s Most Famous Seer” by James Randi.

Memory Distortion : How Minds, Brains, and Societies Reconstruct the Past” by Daniel L. Schacter (Editor).
Much nonsense is talked about what goes on inside the mind and what it means to remember things and events. This book collects some essays from experts who can brush aside that nonsense and explain what it is about memories that we can trust and what we can’t.

The Mismeasure of Man” by Stephen Jay Gould.
Gould has been criticised for being a bit cruel and nasty (and even a bit inaccurate) in his criticisms of people who didn’t know the things we know today, but it is a useful book to show how science can change as more is learned about something. There is no doubt that science is influenced by the culture of the time, but the difference between science and non-science or pseudoscience is that the real thing can break away from culture when the facts demand it.

A Modest Proposal and Other Satires” by Jonathan Swift.

The Myth of Repressed Memory : False Memories and Allegations of Sexual Abuse” by Elizabeth Loftus and Katherine Ketcham.
An entire industry has grown up around the absurd idea that children can be subjected to atrocities like sexual abuse and cannibalism and not remember any of this until some ‘therapist’ reconstructs the memories for them. This book exposes this nonsense for what it is – a vicious attack on children and families by people prepared to knowingly lie to support a crazy ideology.

National Science Education Standards
A landmark effort that involved thousands of teachers, scientists, science educators, and other experts across the country, these standards echo the principle that learning science is an inquiry-based process, that science in schools should reflect the intellectual traditions of contemporary science, and that all Americans have a role in improving science education. This document is invaluable to education policy-makers, school system administrators, teacher educators, individual teachers, and concerned parents.

The New Age : Notes of a Fringe-Watcher” by Martin Gardner.

Nibbling on Einstein’s Brain : The Good, the Bad and the Bogus in Science” by Diane Swanson.

Objections to Astrology” by Bart J. Bok and Lawrence E. Jerome.
A statement by 192 scientists, including 19 Nobel Prize winners, who call the “science” of astrology a deception based on “magic and superstition.”

On the Wild Side” by Martin Gardner.

The Panda’s Thumb : More Reflections in Natural History” by Stephen Jay Gould.

A Physicist’s Guide to Skepticism” by Milton A. Rothman.

Pseudodoxia Epidemica: Or, Enquiries into Very Many Received Tenentes, and CommonlyPresumed Truths” by Thomas Browne.

Quantum Leaps in the Wrong Direction” by Charles Wynn and Arthur Wiggins.
There is a difference between science and pseudoscience, between reality and fantasy. This book shows you how to tell the difference.

Remembering Satan” by Lawrence Wright.

River Out of Eden: A Darwinian View of Life” by Richard Dawkins.

Science : Good, Bad and Bogus” by Martin Gardner.

Science and Religion: Are They Compatible?” by Paul Kurtz, Barry Karr and Ranjit Sandhu.
Science Versus Religion” by Tad S. Clements.

The Selfish Gene” by Richard Dawkins.

Skeptics and True Believers” by Chet Raymo.

The Skeptic’s Dictionary: A Collection of Strange Beliefs, Amusing Deceptions, and Dangerous Delusions” by Robert T. Carroll.
Featuring close to 400 definitions, arguments, and essays on topics ranging from acupuncture to zombies, The Skeptic’s Dictionary is a lively, commonsense trove of detailed information on all things supernatural, occult, paranormal, and pseudoscientific. It covers such categories as alternative medicine; cryptozoology; extraterrestrials and UFOs; frauds and hoaxes; junk science; logic and perception; New Age energy; and the psychic. For the open-minded seeker, the soft or hardened skeptic, and the believing doubter, this book offers a remarkable range of information that puts to the test the best arguments of true believers.

The Skeptic’s Guide to the Paranormal” by Lynne Kelly.

Smoke and Mirrors: The Devastating Effect of False Sexual Abuse Claims” by Terence W. Campbell.

The Sorcerer of Kings: The Case of Daniel Dunglas Home and William Crookes” by Gordon Stein and James Randi.

The Story of Evolution” by Joseph McCabe
Published in 1911, free from Project Gutenberg.

The Structure of Evolutionary Theory” by Stephen Jay Gould.

Superstition : Belief in the Age of Science” by Robert Park.

The Theory of Evolution” by John Maynard Smith.
Evolution is one of those fundamental theories in science, like relativity, heliocentricity, gravity, blood circulation, atomic structure and quantum mechanics of which it can realistically be said that the idea introduced a paradigm shift in scientific thinking. Modern science would be primitive and crippled without it. This book provides excellent ammunition for the fight against those who would replace evolution with superstition.

The Trouble with Science” by Robin Dunbar.
The title of this book might suggest that it is anti-science, but in fact the author posits that science is a natural part of human existence (and even that of some animals) because it is about how organisms explain and interact with the world around them. The author has produced a very good summary of the philosophical path through Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos and Feyerabend, and there is commentary about the relationship between religion and science which mightn’t please Richard Dawkins but which provides a credible explanation for the ubiquity of religion across societies (and which allows for religion to be abandoned when better knowledge comes along).

The Truth about Uri Geller” by James Randi.

Unweaving the Rainbow : Science, Delusion and the Appetite for Wonder” by Richard Dawkins.
Believers in superstition and magic often accuse scientists, atheists and other rational thinkers of denying or even destroying mystery and beauty. Dawkins points out in this book that there is so much wonder and excitement in truth and reality that it is unnecessary to make up explanations.

The Varieties of Scientific Experience : A Personal View of the Search for God” by Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan.

Victims of Memory: Sex Abuse Accusations and Shattered Lives” by Mark Pendergrast and Melody Gavigan.

Voodoo Science : The Road from Foolishness to Fraud” by Robert Park.
The scientific method is the best thing we have come up with to find out about how the universe works. This book is about the misuse of science and how it differs from science done badly. Both are bad, but at least bad science can be corrected. Mad science is more difficult to overcome.

Weird Water & Fuzzy Logic” by Martin Gardner.

Why People Believe Weird Things : Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time” by Michael Shermer.
I am continually amazed by the sorts of things that people can believe without any evidence to support the belief, and often in spite of comprehensive evidence against the belief. Faith is a wonderful thing, but it can’t make facts disappear.

Why We Do It: Rethinking Sex and the Selfish Gene” by Niles Eldredge.

Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History” by Stephen Jay Gould.
.

einstein_010

Another Waste of Time

with 9 comments

PAGE CONTENTS

ANOTHER WASTE OF TIME – ANDREW JOHNSON – APPARENTLY NOT – ARESOLS – JUMBO  FLAME-OUT – BAD SCIENCE

Don’t forget my other pages, links and comments are one click away at the top right of the page… 

ANOTHER WASTE OF TIME

iao-logo

This technically isn’t “chemtrailer” material, but is thoroughly representative of one the “chemtrail” movement’s underlying religious “Ultimate Sacred Postulates”, which is that of “any human government is the work of the Devil, and no good will come of it, and there is no more to think about.”

Unameitltd’s preamble to his videoclip entitled (sic) “Bush’s CIA illegally spys on youtube & myspace users” goes: “CIA publically admits in its pdf document it spys on Americans “citizen media” sites like youtube & myspace. here is their document http://www.fas.org/irp/eprint/naquin.pdf”  (I must admit that spelling mistakes make me tense, for they always precede other mistakes!)

jazzroc
Another waste of time…

unameitltd
amazing how many people will defend CIA illegal domestic spying.

jazzroc
Looking at open source material is BY DEFINITION not spying. They have as much right to look at YouTube as YOU do. All activity on YT is PUBLIC. You must be crazy, or uneducated, or BOTH.

unameitltd
Open souce material isnt spying if members of the public do it. However, government is bound by the 4th admendment and needs probable cause and a warrant when their law enforcement INTENT is to look for criminallity. The CIA is banned by law from domestic spying.

jazzroc
If criminality arises in plain view it is the moral duty for ANYONE to do something about it, including YOU, and including a CIA spook (who is ALSO a “member of the public”). What you suggest is a COMPLETE ABSURDITY. Go boil your head…

unameitltd
A CIA spook on the job IS NOT a member of the public, when at work, on a government computer, they are agents of the US government banned by law from ANY spying on Americians. CIA employees may not legally spy on any american, WHAT PART OF THAT DONT U GET?

jazzroc
The illogical part that you suggest. Are you suggesting that BECAUSE someone works for the CIA he is AUTOMATICALLY unable to use YouTube? Since when EXACTLY did PUBLIC mean PRIVATE? Keep your head in that saucepan…

sauce

  

ANDREW JOHNSON

His website “Check the Evidence

This a hard-working man. Grade A for effort. A pleasure to correspond with, too, at least at first. He holds the classic delusion, but is great on getting evidence. His photographs are of a very high standard. He simply falls down when he attempts to interpret the evidence he so patiently collects. One day, I hope, he will realize his true potential. In the meanwhile it really is such a shame…

Hi – just picking through the site. Wave trails are a natural phenomenon. So are the little downward puffs (great pictures), which are caused by ice accretion, increasing the weight, causing a downward acceleration. This entrains the air. Sometimes you see it happen inside cirrostratus and a “hole” opens in the cloud. A sunset event, quite often, as the dimming sunlight allows the air to cool and bring it closer to supersaturation.

No evidence to back up your assertions. Please send peer-reviewed reference for the persistence of trails for specifically > 2mins (with named and dated case studies and specific atmospheric measurements at the time). Also, list flight details of flights in the case study you are quoting (whether they are test flights, military flights or ordinary civilian flights).

Haha. Very funny. Shirty, eh? http://www-pm.larc.nasa.gov/sass/pub/journals/atlas_JAMC2006.pdf takes care of the nature of contrail deposition, amounts, and quantities over time, and even progression of crystal aggregation. This is the one that tells you, but not directly, that a jumbo can lay down 80,000 tons of ice in six hours of flight…da, da!
Not even NASA would have timed, located and identified the particular aircraft, so I assume from your snitty response you’re going to dismiss it. I’m off to research on your behalf, (seeing that you seem unable) any real findings on fallstreaks and virga. (I’ll give you a tip – always exclude “chemtrails” in your searches if you would like results without speculation or lies in them.)

Google Search Results 1 – 5 out of 645 for “paper” “aviation” “saturated” “atmosphere” “contrails” “-chemtrails” “-aerosols” – Dec 19th 2008.
http://students.ou.edu/J/Thomas.A.Jones-1/contrail.html
http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=48191
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3101/is_3_54/ai_n29372921
http://ams.allenpress.com/archive/1520-0469/15/2/pdf/i1520-0469-15-2-149.pdf
http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a778783829~db=all
I’ll leave you to chase the rest of the 640 results.

418843E

“Hole punch”, “fallstreak” clouds with their associated virga, don’t seem to have made it into major scientific research, but there are a few informed quotes about, which, strangely, agree with my analysis. However no flight numbers are assigned to clouds.

419240E

Google Search Results 1 – 3 out of 10 for “hole” “punch” “clouds” “fallstreak” “research” “paper” “-chemtrails” – Mar 31st 2009.
www.scribd.com/doc/9841727/Essentials-Of-Meteorology
www.uq.edu.au/_School_Science_Lessons/UNPh37.html
www.met.rdg.ac.uk/bl_met/papers/Wood&Harrison09_ASE.pdf
Now apply these references to your double standards. I’m only doing this because you haven’t read my blog.

grid1

"grid" of trails over AJ's house

 re: http://www.pm.larc.nasa.gov/sass/pub/journals/atlas_JAMC2006.pdf

Thanks – have flicked through the paper and when time will respond with the problems in it. A very quick look suggests they have taken some data – then not really explained the mechanism as to how “condensation” can last that long – though they have put a couple of nice equations in and stuff (it’s what scientists do to comfort themselves when they don’t know what they’re dealing with).
(NO. That isn’t true at all. Scientific papers are written assuming that the reader understands basic physical science. Such a reader would KNOW that ambient vapor pressure prevents further sublimation of the ice to vapor, and EQUILIBRIUM is reached.

It’s what scientists do to comfort themselves when they don’t know what they’re dealing with.”

NO. That’s what YOU write when YOU don’t know what you’re dealing with.)

But anyway this one looks better than Ulrich Schumann’s report, as it has more raw data in it. For the moment, I refer to my previous communications about the grid over my house and how no one could give me the flight numbers. Official responses are on my website – but you seem unable to research them….
I will maybe try to contact the NASA authors and ask them how to find out about my grid – and why these trails have gaps in them etc. Perhaps they’ll also be able to explain to me the movements of Hurricane Erin around the time of 9/11 – perhaps they will be coincidence theorists…
Anyway, can you explain this formation for me please:

 http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=183&Itemid=50

The blue plane one is quite interesting – as the plane is almost certainly below 28,000 feet. A retired Naval Officer reported to me last week how he measured the height of several aircraft as approximately 8,000 feet (using the size of the aircraft and graticule measurements) and making trails. How is this possible? I will post this data when I have it nailed down more.
Would you like to see my photo of a trail in cumulus cloud (in an overcast sky) – probably at about 8,000 feet or so? Taken in Feb. On Sunday I was out for about 2 hours and saw 2 trails – beautiful day. Av ground temp was about 10 or 12C. This morning in 5 minutes, I saw about 20 as I was going to the train station… it was about the was about the same temp in the morning…  Oh dear – looks like NASA is not telling us the truth (remember the mars photos you looked at…?)

“will respond with the problems in it.”
Well, it’s very confident of you to suppose there are problems with it at all.

“A very quick look suggests they have taken some data – then not really explained the mechanism as to how “condensation” can last that long – though they have put a couple of nice equations in and stuff (it’s what scientists do to comfort themselves when they don’t know what they’re dealing with).”
Well we all have our comfort zones. Condensation can be perfectly permanent at 100% saturation. It makes me wonder if you understand the technical term “equilibrium”. You haven’t coped with condensation yet. You should look at a Wilson Cloud Chamber. WIKI it.

cloudchamber

Wilson Cloud Chamber - AJ

 Re NASA paper – another note. All references which refer to contrails, except 1, are post 1994 (and I think post 1996). I found the 1972 paper and it’s an interesting read. I might be able to put together another article to clarify further the misapprehensions that you and many other scientists seem to be labouring under – and the staggering assumptions you repeatedly reel off as if they are fact.

“They forgot to report a Cat 5 hurricane”. Classic – that’s super. re this: “We obviously perceive things very differently from each other. How do you suppose I’ve conducted a career in industrial engineering design with perceptual deficiencies with respect to analyzing space and dynamics?”

 Yes – not much point in continuing – when you brush off grids of air craft trails and assume flight paths cross – but provide no evidence. Anyway, how do you suppose I’ve conducted a career in software engineering and software design and education with perceptual deficiencies with respect to analyzing data and developing solutions to engineering problems?

I liked your “shadow of a contrail” – highly entertaining.

Write to NASA and tell them what you think about the dome photos and sending a rover etc – see what response you get. Oddly, then, we share a similar perception about this dome. So why the difference between that and aircraft grids – they’re both “spatial awareness” related aren’t they?

I wrote to the one of the Mars Express team members and they showed little interest. And you didn’t answer why there was such a difference between the USGS and MSSS versions. 

aero

aerodynamic and engine contrail - AJ

 “clarify further the misapprehensions that you and many other scientists seem to be labouring under – and the staggering assumptions you repeatedly reel off as if they are fact”

They are fact. Perhaps you haven’t operated a Wilson Cloud chamber, run a gas turbine on a test bed, operated a wind tunnel. Water has several quite unusual properties. In fact they’re almost unique. Superheating and supercooling, latent heats of melting and vaporizarion, a specific heat eighty times that of metals.
The Earth’s atmosphere has some unique properties which you haven’t seen fit to acknowledge either, possibly because you remain unaware of them in spite of having had them pointed out to you.
With respect to condensation, I will reiterate to you that it cannot take place even when the atmosphere is in a stable supersaturated state until some “foreign” stimulus initiates it. Which is why an airplane flying through it may trigger a condensation trail. When the atmosphere is in such a stable supersaturated condition it is by definition PERFECTLY PURE: there is not one iota of impurity within it. The condensation clouds start initially as microscopically-fine crystals (so fine as to exhibit diffractive properties) but grow rapidly by progressively-accelerating accretion. Their weight/surface area ratio increases, and their rate of falling does so also. This progressive downward acceleration causes “pendules” (equispaced artificial “virga”) to form in trails. The exhaust gas particulate count greatly exceeds the number of ice condensate crystals that form from the combusted fuel alone, and up to TEN THOUSAND TIMES AS MUCH ICE may be precipitated at the same time. This is why I’m telling you that a single trans-USA jumbo flight may put EIGHTY THOUSAND TONS OF ICE into the sky.

circle1

persistent trail of circling airplane beneath temporary trail - AJ

 “‘They forgot to report a Cat 5 hurricane’. Classic – that’s super.”
They also left the Eastern seaboard defended by fourteeen fighters which they misdirected elsewhere. That was super, too.

The direction that a hurricane takes is uniquely dependent upon its heat uptake from the sea. The amount of heat it can steal from the sea is equivalent to a 100 megaton thermonuclear weapon, so any unsubtle inferring that the PTB somehow redirected it will earn you my most ribald scorn…

“you brush off grids of air craft trails and assume flight paths cross – but provide no evidence.”
For your information the Earth is an oblate spheroid. Its rotation leaves one with the mistaken impression that the Sun goes round the Earth. If you think the Earth is flat, and the Sun goes round the Earth, why should I “provide evidence”? If you can’t understand “grids” why should I care? Flight paths cross at different heights. That’s what Air Traffic Control is all about. I’ve conducted this same conversation with hundreds over the years. Some people just can’t get it. Try not to be one of them.

“Anyway, how do you suppose I’ve conducted a career in software engineering and software design and education with perceptual deficiencies with respect to analyzing data and developing solutions to engineering problems?”
Extremely badly, by the sound of it. I never had time to pursue chimaeras as you do. Now YOU are my “chimaera”.

“I liked your “shadow of a contrail” – highly entertaining.”
I’ve seen many. Your perception isn’t good. Visit http://www.atoptics.com 

A complete understanding of this very good website will do you WONDERS.

A vry non-intuitive crepuscular shadow

A very non-intuitive crepuscular shadow!

“Write to NASA and tell them what you think about the dome photos and sending a rover etc – see what response you get.”
No. I wouldn’t want to be such a dick. I’ll wait until a rover DOES visit the area.

“Oddly, then, we share a similar perception about this dome.”
Well, it DOES look remarkably like a dome. This info’s at least five years old, and I was on top of it at the time. The difference is that I have made mistakes about such “sure things” in the past. They’re in YOUR present. I’m just trying to prevent you from wasting your time here.

So why the difference between that and aircraft grids – they’re both “spatial awareness” related aren’t they?
Well, “looking remarkably like” isn’t BEING. I’ve watched progressive satellite pictures of trails from above. It’s even MORE obvious you’re looking at shuttle flights, in a prevailing wind. You can also see the effects of the moving belts of humid air in the stratosphere which are enabling these trails.

“I wrote to the one of the Mars Express team members and they showed little interest.”
You’re going to sound like a nut even if your interest is sincere. They’re busy, and you’re MAD. (So to speak.)

“And you didn’t answer why there was such a difference between the USGS and MSSS versions.”
Well, it’s a little odd. I see they’re marked as erroneous. That probably means they discard them from run-of-the-mill analysis. Somebody has obviously come along, seen the artefacts, had a go at cleaning them up, thought “****it!”, and discarded the attempt, thinking “There are errors here already”.
Then patient, assiduous, (dare I suggest it?) paranoid people like you come along, find these bits of wreckage, and attempt to “blow them up” as “things NASA doesn’t want you to know“. What utter crap. You seem like a nice guy. Concentrate on REAL issues.

cloud4

“how is the cloud chamber analogy relevant”
It demonstrates the EXACT MECHANISM by which contrails occur.

“the conditions in question are totally different”
The conditions in question apply exactly. Overall pressure has nothing to do with the phenomenon.

“deadly cosmic rays or radiation from the earth”
Will also produce fine lines of condensate through a saturated sky. These are very fine and disperse instantly.

“Flight data for the grids please”
Do it yourself. Superimpose crossing flight routes from Flight Explorer upon the prevailing wind direction and produce yourself a spiderweb of “grids”.

“thanks for the “new leads” so that I can build up even more powerful data sets and arguments”
Data is not much use to someone whose powers of interpretation are poor. You bore easily. Thanks for your very excellent images.

PS. I have just read through some of your correspondence. It has become quite obvious to me that anything I might say to you has already been said to you by others equally qualified, and that it was a total waste of time beginning a dialogue with you in the first place.
To have a facility with science means being able to understand and interpret the data you gather. It is plain from your failure to understand the use of the word “may”, for instance, that it is in the ability to interpret you are somewhat lacking. But there are many other examples here.
People may pass exams in science (especially these days) without possessing the ability to conduct it, especially as it isn’t easy to examine someone for interpretive ability. The possession of fact concerning a matter of science is quite subservient to the possession of this power to INTERPRET. This power advances science. When this occurs to you, I would like to be a fly on the wall…
It will one day, for you are a hard-working individual.

 All very well – but no one in the UK can give me the flight numbers for the day of the grids – that’s official. You have focused your attention on me as if I am “a lone voice” – I am not. Take a look at Rosalind Peterson’s site for example, California Skywatch – she worked for the US Govt.

www.californiaskywatch.com

Cliff Carnicom did the same.

www.carnicom.com

Deliberate misinformation is being promulgated by some people who should know better (Ted Tweitmeyer claimed a refuelling pod on a plane was a chemtrail sprayer – he runs a website called Data4science).

http://www.data4science.net/

http://www.rense.com/general81/ddthr.htm

20 people (some of whom I have never met) wanted to countersign my report when I’d compiled it. Why? Probably because they regard my interpretation of the raw data as more correct than yours and those officials who claim to know all about what is going on in our skies. None of them, when given the opportunity, have been able to provide the basic data I asked for.

None of them have sufficiently explained the video I sent you with the chemtrail and the contrail in the same part of the sky on the same day, at the same time. It is precisely these sorts of scenarios which are missing from that NASA study you sent (and the others I have looked at).

It is precisely the interesting and unexplained data on Mars which is ignored or ridiculed by those who are paid to investigate such. It is precisely the hexagonal craters on Iapetus that are ignored and glossed over. It is precisely the hexagonal pattern in the atmosphere of Saturn that is ignored and overlooked as some kind of irrelevance.

Studying these patterns – and those in the 9/11 data – along with former Professor of Mechanical Engineering Dr Judy Wood have lead me to a new understanding of the world we are enslaved in. Some people find the cage more appealing than the universe outside the cage – that’s up to them to live in it if they wish. The truth has indeed pissed me off, but it has also set me free and I am working hard to show others were the weak points in the cage bars are (there are many) and they can break them if they wish – or at least yank and rattle them.

Here’s a saying I coined: “By ignoring any amount of data/evidence, it is possible to come to any desired conclusion. However, the value of such a conclusion will be inversely proportional to the amount of evidence ignored.”

response

“All very well – but no one in the UK can give me the flight numbers for the day of the grids – that’s official.”
I dare say they simply didn’t believe the effort justified the results. You must be aware of the vast numbers of crossing flight routes and flights  involved. And that the flight control system is primarily concerned with real-time control. It must store records, that’s true. But to dig them out simply because an inquirer cannot comprehend how grid patterns may occur – is a waste of time.

“You have focused your attention on me as if I am “a lone voice” – I am not. Take a look at Rosalind Peterson’s site for example, California Skywatch -she worked for the US Govt.”
And I for the British. I have heard and seen some of her reasoning. I disagree with her too.

“Cliff Carnicom did the same.”
You really don’t read the work of people that disagree with you, do you?

“Ted Tweitmeyer claimed a refuelling pod on a plane was a chemtrail sprayer – he runs a website called Data4science.”
He too gets a mentch on my blog.

“20 people (some of whom I have never met) wanted to countersign my report when I’d compiled it. Why? Probably because they regard my interpretation of the raw data as more correct than yours and those officials who claim to know all about what is going on in our skies. None of them, when given the opportunity, have been able to provide the basic data I asked for.”
It doesn’t surprise me that others also misinterpret data as you do. However a check out with WIKI on TROPOSPHERE, TROPOPAUSE, STRATOSPHERE, (and all the links contained within) should be sufficient to cause you to reinterpret your data, IF YOU UNDERSTAND WHAT IS WRITTEN THERE.

“None of them have sufficiently explained the video I sent you with the chemtrail and the contrail in the same part of the sky on the same day, at the same time. It is precisely these sorts of scenarios which are missing from that NASA study you sent (and the others I have looked at).”
See above.

“It is precisely the interesting and unexplained data on Mars”
Covered.

“the hexagonal craters on Iapetus”
Natural. (Fingal’s Cave? There are hexagonal piles all over the Canary Isles, where I live.)

“hexagonal pattern in the atmosphere of Saturn”
A standing wave…

“we are enslaved in”
Woah!

“Some people find the cage more appealing”
Society’s dysfunctionality is moderated by Man’s mortality…

“The truth has set me free”
But untruth does the reverse.

“Here’s a saying I coined: ‘By ignoring any amount of data/evidence, it is possible to come to any desired conclusion. However, the value of such a conclusion will be inversely proportional to the amount of evidence ignored.'”
Amen. Here’s to irony…

another shadow of a trail by AJ

another shadow of a trail by AJ

Oops – you’re making false statements again… “I dare say they simply didn’t believe the effort justified the results. You must be aware of the vast numbers of crossing flight routes and flights  involved. And that the flight control system is primarily concerned with real-time control. It must store records, that’s true. But to dig them out simply because an inquirer cannot comprehend how grid patterns may occur – is a waste of time.”

I completed an FOI to the CAA and the Dept transport – the response was “We don’t have the information you asked for” it wasn’t “we aren’t able or can’t be bothered to get it for some schmuck from Borrowash”. This is why our interpretation differs – and it illustrates again your willingness to ignore published data…. Standing wave? Where is the scientific study that shows this happening in the atmosphere of large gas-giant planets. More really wild assumptions on your part. Amazing behaviour! So is Iapetus made of Basalt? Hmmm – NASA say it’s “mostly ice”. Of course, we can *assume* it happens to be basalt where the craters are. We can assume anything – so why have science and measurements – if we just assume we are right, we don’t ever need to measure anything. Anyway, your original blog title was most apt “Jazzroc vs Chemtrails”….yep – that was the size of it!!

Oops – you’re making false statements again…
I haven’t made any false statements yet, so there’s no “again”. Whatever you were told, they may have lied to you. Records must be kept in the event there is an incident. It could be that after six months, or some other arbitrary interval, they are then discarded, but until then they will be kept.

I completed an FOI to the CAA and the Dept transport – the response was “We don’t have the information you asked for” it wasn’t “we aren’t able or can’t be bothered to get it for some schmuck from Borrowash”.
LOL. Great figure of speech.  🙂

“This is why our interpretation differs – and it illustrates again your willingness to ignore published data…”
You ignore it all the time by your interpretive failure. I wouldn’t claim to be infallible either – I’m not – but I’m just a smidgeon ahead of you.

hexagon

“Standing wave? Where is the scientific study that shows this happening in the atmosphere of large gas-giant planets. More really wild assumptions on your part. Amazing behaviour!”
I don’t need a “scientific study”. My scientific understanding tells me it’s a standing wave because it’s a pattern I have seen before. Standing waves exist in all compressible atmospheres, unless they’re absolutely at rest. Scientific understanding may well be amazing behaviour to you if you don’t possess it. Have you checked Saturn references thoroughly? I dare say you have – it’s a useful tool, persistence. If nobody else has anything to say about it, then you heard it from JazzRoc first – it’s a STANDING WAVE.

“So is Iapetus made of Basalt? Hmmm – NASA say it’s “mostly ice”. Of course, we can *assume* it happens to be basalt where the craters are. We can assume anything – so why have science and measurements – if we just assume we are right, we don’t ever need to measure anything.”
No, I was simply arguing that hexagonal features are NATURAL. What those most exactly resemble are the regular hexagonal features and “sinkholes” found in permafrost on Earth.

tundra

“Anyway, your original blog title was most apt “Jazzroc vs Chemtrails”… yep – that was the size of it!!”
It IS about the size of it, exactly.

WIKI: “A persisting hexagonal wave pattern around the north polar vortex in the atmosphere at about 78°N was first noted in the Voyager images. Unlike the north pole, HST imaging of the south polar region indicates the presence of a jet stream, but no strong polar vortex nor any hexagonal standing wave.”

Shame. Someone beat me to it.

Here I quote the nub of Andrew’s difficulties:

Since contrail persistence requires at least ice saturation, a sky full of contrails but without natural cirrus shows that cases occur with humidity above ice-saturation but below the threshold for cirrus formation.

 Andrew’s reply to this is: “This is not an explanation – it is a statement that ‘something happens’. It says that trails can persist without supersaturation – so, supersaturation cannot be the sole explanation for the formation persistent trails. The phrase is really, again, saying ‘persistent trails form, but we don’t know why’.”

But the answer is simple: between normal (dry-ish) air and supersaturated air there is saturated air. This is QUITE SUFFICIENT to prevent the ice crystals of the trail from sublimating away. Somehow Andrew has forgotten this. His conviction (that the Powers That Be are nefarious) prevents him from seeing this. All he waits for is some apparent perceived inconsistency. Once he gets this, his fears are confirmed, and he closes down rational thought.

090427_cartoon_5_a14122_p465

It isn’t his only vice.

If I argue with him that it is only reasonable to suppose (for it is true) that crossing aircraft routes will produce “grids” in the sky on occasions, then he demands that I supply him with the SCHEDULING of these flights. It is as if I had become suddenly to him the REPRESENTATIVE of external officialdom, instead of a friendly stranger trying to give him good advice.

And then there is his petty-fogging “attention to detail”; adjusting the deckchairs on his Titanic by “counting” his “evidence”. He should learn to EVALUATE his evidence before counting it. Sadly, his skills there are lacking, and he lacks the means of countering that.

“Flight data for the grids please”

you didn’t answer why there was such a difference between the USGS and MSSS versions” 

Fallstreak Virga over my apartment, El Medano, Tenerife

Fallstreak Virga over my apartment, El Medano, Tenerife

APPARENTLY NOT

“Chemtrails have been controversial since 1999.”

In eight years SOMEBODY would have DIED! ….APPARENTLY NOT

A “chemtrail analyzed”, an “employee” infected? ….APPARENTLY NOT

“Chemtrail material” in crashed plane? ….APPARENTLY NOT

ANY EVIDENCE AT ALL? ….APPARENTLY NOT

ARESOLS

How old are you, sniker?

How did you escape Science class?

“sorry, but” – but nothing. You’re just plain sorry.

“if there was a layer of humidity the trail would not form!” – ALL AIR IS HUMID, SO WHAT YOU SAY IS BULLFEATHERS

“They only form above 30,000 feet or so where the humidity is low!” – Yep, you escaped. Stratospheric air (at MINUS FORTY degrees!) STILL contains moisture. It may even be SATURATED with water vapour, even though it contains LESS MOISTURE than tropospheric air. When it IS saturated, contrails PERSIST, and drift to form CIRRUS clouds.

“Aresols like barium” – Barium is an ELEMENT, not an ar****le. (Oh, I see you meant AEROSOL). It is an ALKALINE EARTH METAL. It is NOT an aerosol. The jet engine would GO OUT if barium (oxide) dust passed through it.

“a metallic salt can extract moisture from 30-40% humidity instead of the 70 for normal cloud formation!” – “Normal”? Tropospheric clouds? But we’re talking STRATOSPHERE mate if we’re talking about CT videos on YouTube. There’s been NO tropospheric trail recorded in YouTube, ever. And the word you never found is HYGROSCOPIC…

“Trails should form and dissipate or not form at all!” – No, it’s your THOUGHTS that should do all of that.

 

JUMBO FLAME-OUT DUE TO VOLCANIC DUST

 

BAD SCIENCE

Six months after checking ALL YouTube “Chemtrail” websites I have found NOT ONE IOTA OF PROOF regarding CHEMTRAILS.

They all think they’ve proved it because they TELL EACH OTHER that it’s so.

SEVENTY-THREE SITES have BLOCKED, “APPROVAL”(then none!) or DEACTIVATED comments, and have gone on to show PERFECTLY ORDINARY CONTRAILS, with witless comments which, apart from their abrogation of democratic accountability, DEMONSTRATE that they absolutely HAVEN’T A CLUE about ordinary CONTRAIL PROPAGATION.

I expected to find a THOROUGH STUDY of AIRPORT FACILITIES (after all, if they are SPRAYING stuff, you’d expect to find STUFF!)

WHITE materials would leave WHITE SPLASHES on AIRPORT TAXIWAYS.

TOXIC materials would give you a chance to see people wearing MASKS AND SUITS, special sealed TRUCKS, signs saying “HAZARD” – ALL SORTS OF STUFF.

It is often quite possible to walk up to aircraft and inspect them for nozzles, strange hatches, drips and stains. NO VIDEO has ever done this and made comparisons with easily-available external plans for almost every single type of aircraft.

I know that it’s a hard thing to do, but the ONLY WAY to PROVE such assertions is to FLY BEHIND A “CHEMTRAIL” AND SCOOP UP SOME FOR ANALYSIS. It should cost about $10000. Well that’s only $200 each for the RAMPANT HYPOCRITES I mention above.

Why haven’t they thought of this? I suggest it’s because they KNOW they’re onto a good wheeze. Thousands of eager terrified sheep are quite prepared to BELIEVE that the NWO is OUT TO GET THEM. WHAT A MARKET! IT’S OBVIOUS that these “people” are quite convinced that they are, indeed, EXPERTS!

They even insist that you mustn’t trust Science because it has been historically altered by the CIA! Well, that may do for the SHEEP, but it won’t do for ME.

Such a MUTILATION of TRUTH is harmful for everyone.

Now, the NWO may well be OUT TO GET US using FUNCTIONAL SCIENCE, for all I know. The ONLY WAY we can defend ourselves against such an onslaught is to use GOOD SCIENCE, OBJECTIVITY, and TRUTH.

Not BAD SCIENCE, HYPOCRISY, and LIES….

spook1

Bamboozled

with 3 comments

PAGE CONTENTS

BAMBOOZLED – BALONEY DETECTION KIT – BOENOID – BARD OF ELY BLOG RESPONSE –  A BLACK HOLE – BLUE LIGHT SCATTERING – CHEMTRAILERS WE LOVE YOU (NOT!)

Don’t forget my other pages, links and comments are one click away at the top right of the page…

BAMBOOZLED

carl

One of the saddest lessons of history is this: If we’ve been bamboozled long enough, we tend to reject any evidence of the bamboozle. We’re no longer interested in finding out the truth. The bamboozle has captured us. It is simply too painful to acknowledge — even to ourselves — that we’ve been so credulous. (So the old bamboozles tend to persist as the new bamboozles rise.) – Carl Sagan

BALONEY DETECTION KIT

b075PB_lg

As a society it falls upon us as individuals to live our lives using the best judgement possible.

For each of us it wasn’t always that way: as children we instinctively believed what our parents told us, which was a powerful defense mechanism that generally kept us out of harm’s way.

As we grow up this gullibility has to be exchanged for a healthy cynicism and sound judgment which will afford some protection from the intentional deception of sociopaths.

BOENOID

This is a comment posted at Uncinus’s excellent site Contrailscience late Sept 2009. It is rare to find such professionalism and terse accuracy in “chemtrailer” writing, and here is an experienced and technically competent writer presenting an opposite point of view. No surprise, there:

boeing factory

For what it is worth, I am a Boeing engineer with 20 years of experience in the aerospace industry.

* There are no special tanks anywhere on our airplanes to hold chemicals to be sprayed out.

* There are no spray nozzles on the airplanes either, unless you count the emergency fuel dump nozzles on the widebody jets.

* This can be readily ascertained by simply looking through an airplane before the interior wall panels are installed. Here is a list of all the tanks which are on a jetliner:

** Fuel, potable water, waste water, engine fire suppressant (Halon + other stuff), cargo fire suppressant (just Halon), hydraulic reservoirs. On the new airplanes you will also see tank-like devices which generate nitrogen to inert the fuel tanks.

* Further, there is no room for such stuff to get installed. You would have to carry TONS of liquid to make spray trails independent of the exhaust condensation, and the only liquid we carry tons of is Jet-A fuel.

* In Everett Washington, the Seattle flight museum has a restoration center where you can go see dismantled airplanes being readied for display in the museum. The work is done almost entirely by volunteers. I assume other flight museums have similar workshops. If you can find one where you live, go to the restoration center and see the planes up close. There’s no where to hide a sprayer system where it wouldn’t be seen by maintenance crews.

* The Boeing final assembly plant is open for tours by the public, and VIPs from all over the world can get close-up tours. The airplanes are built in a staggered sequence, so that two airplanes side-by-side are usually being made for two different airlines.

* The majority of Boeing’s production is sold overseas. In fact, the company is the nation’s largest exporter.

* Thus, if a domestic airplane was modified for “chemtrail production” in the factory, it would be as easy as pie for a foreign VIP to walk over and say, “What are these fancy tanks and sprayers on the American plane which aren’t on my airplane?”

* If any airplane WAS modified for chemtrail to add chemtrail sprayers, the thousands of Boeing employees would have to know. I don’t work in Fuels, and I can identify every tank and tube in the wing area.

* If thousands of Boeing employees knew, then so would thousands of supplier employees who go through our factories, thousands of airlines employees who go through our factories, and all the FAA and NTSB and DOT people as well. Also, our airplanes and factories are inspected by the Aviation Authorities of foreign countries (like EASA from Europe) and they would also need to be in on the conspiracy.

* There would simply be too many people involved to prevent this from leaking out. If the chem trail sprayers were being added in the factory, the secret would be out.

* So what if the chemtrail sprayers were being added by an aftermarket shop?

* You’re back to the same problem. It takes hundreds of people to design, build, and install a major modification on a jetliner, and the mod shops are just as open as Boeing is. You wouldn’t be able to keep the secret.

* Further, most airlines have their planes maintained by outside suppliers, who would have to be in on the conspiracy. Those who do their own maintenance do the work in open bays that again would make it easy to view the modification.

* And you have the same problem that you need to get thousands of maintenance people, suppliers, and certification authorities in on the conspiracy. It would have leaked by now. All it takes is one guy with a cell phone camera, and the world would know.

* So what if they somehow managed to do all this stuff anyway? Now you have to realize that somebody, somewhere, has to be pumping TONS of chemtrail chemicals into these mysterious hidden tanks on the airplanes. You would need a fill valve, and a distribution system, and special trucks carrying the chemicals disguised as fuel trucks. That would take thousands more people to be in on the conspiracy.

* One giveaway would be two fuel trucks pulling up to the same jetliner – one with the fuel and one with the chemicals. Remember, we’re talking about tons of liquid here.

* It just doesn’t work – you would need independent chemical fill ports, and somebody, somewhere, would notice.

* And while we’re talking about it, remember that every jetliner pilot has to check the weight of the plane and calculate a talk off runway length and other factors. The charts are the same for every jetliner of a given type, but if there really were chemtrail sprayers, then the charts for those airplanes would have to be different to account for the tons of chemicals that might be on the airplane.

* So, I really don’t think there is any way to hide the sprayers on jetliners. Too many people would have to know, and it would be too easy to detect by passerby.

* So, what if the chemtrail chemicals are in the jet fuel? This wouldn’t require ANY visible modifications to the airplanes, and far fewer people would have to know about the conspiracy.

* This would be harder to refute, BUT, you would have to discard the “on and off” contrails as being caused by pilots turning sprayers on and off. All the fuel on the plane came from the same fuel trucks and the same fuel tanks, so the supposed chemtrail would have to be continuous from takeoff until landing. I think that would have been noticed by now.

* So to my mind, that pretty much eliminates the possibility of using jetliners to create chemtrails.

* Which means you have to be using military jets, and thousands of them, flying unnoticed back and forth on normal commercial routes. So now you have to have all the air traffic controllers in on the conspiracy as well.

* And the planes will again need special tanks for the chemicals, and special fill ports, and special sprayers, and special tanker trucks filling the chemical tanks on the planes, special non-military suppliers delivering the stuff, and you’re right back to the same issue of needing to keep thousands of people from talking.

Bottom line:
You would need a special delivery system on the airplanes.
You would need a special fill system.
You would need independent tanker trucks.
You would need a separate supply chain.
You would need thousands and thousands of people to hold their tongues, and never have even ONE person leave any incriminating evidence in a safe deposit box to be discovered after their deaths.

It ain’t happening.

q8flight

BARD OF ELY BLOG – A RESPONSE

bard-1

BARD BLOG

“Although chemtrails are conspicuous in our skies and thousands of sites exist about the menace the mainstream media and the authorities are very quiet about the matter or ignore and deny their existence. This of course, adds fuel to the conspiracy theories!

But it’s not just the media and the officials that are silent because there is a similar wall of silence from successful singer-songwriters and rock stars as well as celebrities in general! What does this mean? is there some memo that gets circulated warning that if you mention chemtrails your contract is terminated? Are people too scared to mention such stuff in public? What is going on?

I say we need people who can get the media exposure to come forward on this matter! We need stars to talk about chemtrails on live TV and radio!

I believe we need protest songs about chemtrails! If anyone knows of any please let me know!”

There is no evidence that I have seen that trails in the sky are anything except the water and carbon dioxide (and trace amounts of NOX) left by the passage of gas turbines in the stratosphere.

Now water is drinkable, carbon dioxide is respired by plants to make sugar, and the NOX combines with water to form dilute nitric acid which forms nitrates on contact with soil, helping plants to grow.

The majority of trails in the skies of Earth cross the US continent, so it is they that will bear the brunt of this “contamination”. So be it. Their plants will grow a little better, is all. Although the daily burning of a million tons of kerosine seems massive to you, in relation to the mass of the Earth’s atmosphere it is NOTHING.

ALL of Man’s conflagrations, his best efforts annually, will raise the sea level by 0.0000000000001 per cent, for instance (approximately).

Now, as to whether STRANGE COMPOUNDS are surreptitiously being introduced into burning gas turbines, in order to distribute them as an aerosol throughout the Earth’s atmosphere, why on Earth would anyone do that? (It would HAVE to be THROUGH the turbine because spray devices external to the motor would have to be plainly visible).

It just doesn’t stand up to any logical consideration.

Your ignorance has lead to your paranoia.

I blame Western Culture as a whole for failing to instil a minimum but requisite standard of scientific knowledge for the technological conditions under which we live.

Desist this crap!

“I totally disagree! Please do some research Tony! I have been researching this for a long time! The planet is being geoengineered under Caps & Trade schemes. there are many things being done including weather modification which I have seen in the UK and here and is all known about if you dig deep! Try californiaskywatch.com for starters.”

Seeding clouds for rain with silver iodide crystals (or powdered tea!) is completely harmless. It IS NOT “weather modification”!

I have checked through the website above and NONE of the things mentioned bears ANY relationship to NATURAL VULCANISM, let alone the masses of the land, atmosphere and oceans.

The amount of ocean: imagine a cubic mile of ocean. One mile square, up to the height of Vilaflor from sea level. Got it?

Then imagine 500,000,000 of them.

Counting them at the rate of one per second will take you SIXTEEN years.

The ocean weighs 114,398,298,100,000,000 tons. One hundred and fourteen thousand trillion tons. That’s a HUGE dilution factor…

open_sea_sm

“you can watch trails that last and spread and no trails or old style contrails at the same time, you can watch planes with no trail start a trail and then stop. you can have a day or period of a day with old style normal clouds and blue sky followed by loads of chemtrails and a sky turned to a mass of fake clouds and haze”.

Contrails are a stratospheric phenomenon (not in the troposphere, where your weather is). The stratosphere is generally stable, layered (like an onion skin) with layers of water/air solutions at various temperatures and humidities. When they are moving in different directions to each other (and falling slightly) they form CIRRUS clouds. When they fall without any relative motion, they form CIRROSTRATUS clouds.

strato

Sometimes the layers are supersaturated and only require flying through (say by glider wings) to condense out water and form clouds. They understandably may get somewhat upset when a clumping great turbofan whistles through them. Sometimes (when the layer is SATURATED) the upset is permanent, but in general the stratosphere is less than saturated, and you see a temporary contrail which trails the plane for say a mile or so, before being re-absorbed. On days when the layers are ALL saturated, the contrails will hang there ALL DAY.

Contrails are WATER, and you are not being sensible.

“you can have a day or period of a day with old style normal clouds and blue sky”.

What you are talking about here is the TROPOSPHERE, which is the air between the ground and the stratosphere.

This is the atmosphere as you experience it at ground level. It is THE BULK of the total atmosphere, half of which is to be found beneath twelve thousand feet.

The STRATOSPHERE is to be found at DOUBLE that height and above, to a height of sixty thousand feet. It is relatively rarefied, very cold (-80 deg F, colder than Mars) and TRANSPARENT.

It is the atmosphere beneath twelve thousand feet which is responsible for the blue in the sky (by scattering of white light – the blue “scatters” whilst the red continues straight on).

On bad days in the latter part of WWII, the stratosphere was supersaturated when USAF Flying fortresses set out to precision-bomb German targets in their thousands. The Germans could see them coming from three hundred miles away, without radar, and could adjust their fighter attacks with time to spare. Bad days, with hundreds of bombers littering the path back to Blighty.

Do you suppose those bombing raids were chemical attacks?

“listen Tony I don’t see why you feel the need to insult me!”

No insult intended. I DESCRIBED you.

“i didn’t start this argument and if you have nothing f—ing better to do with your time f— off”.

It’s not an argument. It’s a discussion. I consider it important to correct the foolishness of a friend.

“I know what I see and have the opinions of thousands of others who see likewise”.

You don’t “know” what you see. That’s the point. You’re blogging others down a foolish path. That I feel compelled to prevent. The opinions of other deluded people don’t count for much, do they? Nor should you help to delude them, should you? It would be harmful, even evil, wouldn’t it?

“i certainly don’t need to be insulted by someone I thought was a friend”.

Then don’t FEEL insulted. You’re not the only person that has been foolish in the world are you?

I have given you an accurate account of what it was you thought you had seen. You have been given the benefit of my scientific experience.

Would it have been kind to remain silent?

You should should consider yourself assisted, helped, loved, by this friend, and as a consequence GIVE THIS STUPIDITY UP!

stupidity_test

A BLACK HOLE

Cygnus X-1

BlackHole

BLUE LIGHT SCATTERING

It seems to be normal for chemtrailers not to understand why our skies are blue.

Where were these people in junior school, or in science class? Outside?

White light is a MIXTURE of visible light frequencies. The Sun (which is the main source of all light by which we see, is a very hot body which radiates photons of many frequencies, some of which are so energetic that they would harm us if they could pass through our atmosphere – but they cannot.

What does pass through is mainly a tight group of frequencies, spanning just over an octave, which our eyes can see.

Our eyes have evolved to make use of these frequencies – naturally.

spectrum

Wikipedia: Rayleigh scattering

rp1

Rayleigh scattering causes the blue hue of the daytime sky and the reddening of the sun at sunset
rp2

It is more dramatic after sunset. This picture was taken about one hour after sunset at 500m altitude, looking at the horizon where the sun had set, showing the more intense scattering of blue light by the atmosphere relative to red light.

Rayleigh scattering (named after the English physicist Lord Rayleigh) is the elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the light. It can occur when light travels in transparent solids and liquids, but is most prominently seen in gases.

Rayleigh scattering of sunlight in clear atmosphere is the main reason why the sky is blue: Rayleigh and cloud-mediated scattering contribute to diffuse light (direct light being sunrays).

For scattering by particles similar to or larger than a wavelength, see Mie theory or discrete dipole approximation (they apply to the Rayleigh regime as well).

Small size parameter approximation
The size of a scattering particle is parametrized by the ratio x of its characteristic dimension r and wavelength lambda:

r1

Rayleigh scattering can be defined as scattering in the small size parameter regime x < 1. Scattering from larger spherical particles is explained by the Mie theory for an arbitrary size parameter x. The Mie theory reduces to the Rayleigh approximation.

r2

The amount of Rayleigh scattering that occurs for a beam of light is dependent upon the size of the particles and the wavelength of the light (lambda). Specifically, the intensity of the scattered light varies as the sixth power of the particle size and varies inversely with the fourth power of the wavelength.

The intensity I of light scattered by a single small particle from a beam of unpolarized light of wavelength lambda and intensity I0 is given by:

r3

where R is the distance to the particle, lambda is the scattering angle, n is the refractive index of the particle, and d is the diameter of the particle.

The angular distribution of Rayleigh scattering, governed by the (1 + cos^2*lambda) term, is symmetric about the plane normal to the incident direction of the light (i.e. about lambda = 90°), and so the forward scatter equals the backwards scatter. Integrating over the sphere surrounding the particle gives the Rayleigh scattering cross section.

The Rayleigh scattering coefficient for a group of scattering particles is the number of particles per unit volume N times the cross-section. As with all wave effects, for incoherent scattering the scattered powers add arithmetically, while for coherent scattering, such as if the particles are very near each other, the fields add arithmetically and the sum must be squared to obtain the total scattered power.

rp4

Rayleigh scattering from molecules
A 5 mW green laser pointer is visible at night due to Rayleigh scattering and airborne dust. Rayleigh scattering from molecules is also possible. An individual molecule does not have a well-defined refractive index and diameter. Instead, a molecule has a polarizability a, which describes how much the electrical charges on the molecule will move in an electric field. In this case, the Rayleigh scattering intensity for a single particle is given by

r4

The amount of Rayleigh scattering from a single particle can also be expressed as a cross section s. For example, the major constituent of the atmosphere, nitrogen, has a Rayleigh cross section of 5.1×10^-31 m^2 at a wavelength of 532 nm (green light). This means that at atmospheric pressure, about a fraction 10^-5 of light will be scattered for every meter of travel.

The strong wavelength dependence of the scattering (~lambda-4) means that blue light is scattered much more readily than red light. In the atmosphere, this results in blue wavelengths being scattered to a greater extent than longer (red) wavelengths, and so one sees blue light coming from all regions of the sky. Direct radiation (by definition) is coming directly from the Sun. Rayleigh scattering is a good approximation to the manner in which light scattering occurs within various media for which scattering particles have a small size parameter.

Reason for the blue color of the sky
Rayleigh scattering is responsible for the blue color of the sky during the day. Rayleigh scattering is inversely proportional to the fourth power of wavelength, which means that the shorter wavelength of blue light will scatter more than the longer wavelengths of green and red light. This gives the sky a blue appearance.

Conversely, looking toward the sun, the colors that were not scattered away – the longer wavelengths such as red and yellow light – are visible. When the sun is near the horizon, the volume of air through which sunlight must pass is significantly greater than when the sun is high in the sky. Accordingly, the gradient from a red-yellow sun to the blue sky is considerably wider at sunrise and sunset.

Rayleigh scattering primarily occurs through light’s interaction with air molecules. Some of the scattering can also be from aerosols of sulfate particles. For years following large Plinian eruptions, the blue cast of the sky is notably brightened due to the persistent sulfate load of the stratospheric eruptive gases. Another source of scattering is from microscopic density fluctuations, resulting from the random motion of the air molecules. A region of higher or lower density has a slightly different refractive index than the surrounding medium, and therefore it acts like a short-lived particle that can scatter light.
References
Rayleigh scattering at Hyperphysics
Maarten Sneep and Wim Ubachs, Direct measurement of the Rayleigh scattering cross section in various gases. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 92, 293 (2005).
C.F. Bohren, D. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles, John Wiley, New York 1983. Contains a good description of the asymptotic behavior of Mie theory for small size parameter (Rayleigh approximation).
Ditchburn, R.W. (1963). Light (2nd ed.). London: Blackie & Sons. pp. 582–585.
Chakraborti, Sayan (September 2007). “Verification of the Rayleigh scattering cross section”. American Journal of Physics 75 (9): 824-826. doi:10.1119/1.2752825.
Ahrens, C. Donald (1994). Meteorology Today: an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment (5th ed.). St. Paul MN: West Publishing Company. pp. 88–89.

syrian 747

And so when we see aircraft from the ground (this is a Syrian Air Boeing 747) we cannot expect to see its markings. They have been “scattered” away. You will only see its markings by taking pictures of it from up close.

CHEMTRAILERS WE LOVE YOU

(NOT!)

It’s that moment when you have engaged your sophisticated and educated brain in a discussion with a chemtrailer and he suddenly starts talking about vertical “chemtrails” and challenges you to to justify those… You point out that only some fighter aircraft can travel vertically, and this guy says no, it was a “tanker aircraft” and while you are wondering what the hell, you realize that he doesn’t understand perspective at all, and he’s really talking about trails coming towards you and passing overhead you. Which means, of course, that you’re wasting your time with exotic explanations involving crossing shuttle routes.

Or when someone sends you a picture of a broken trail, and you can see that it had been a continuous trail before some crook had photoshopped it. So you tell him it’s a fraudulent picture, and so he sends you a color-processed copy so damned effective that you can see each individual photoshop spraying pass, thinking he has proved his point. I drew lines and arrows pointing exactly where it was occurring, and he still couldn’t see it.

Enough from me.

I want information, not a video of some guy’s grass saying “chemtard” over and over. ”

But, that is what this video IS! You are complaining because I didn’t give YOU what YOU want in this video?! Are you f*****g kidding me?! I didn’t force you to come here and make the assumption that I’m supposed to “teach” you something! I make it PERFECTLY clear in my videos that I’m not here to educate any lazy and ignorant chemtard! I tried that in the past… It wasn’t worth my time. Learn for yourself!
I even make it PERFECTLY clear in the “info” area that I don’t have time to be wasting on f*****g ignorant chemtards! Where do you see ANYTHING about me being an information booth?! Who said it’s MY f*****g job to educate YOU?!?

I must say he seems reasonable to me. Stars, save me…

KeystoneSTARS

Blathering

leave a comment »

PAGE CONTENTS

BLATHERING – BLOBLAW005 – BLUSTER – BOOBLUBE – BRITANNICA – BROKEN CONTRAILS – BUTT – CAPS

Don’t forget my other pages, links and comments are one click away at the top right of the page… 

BLATHERING

grid

“those sky-grids” – you’re about to get the works on that from ME.

“scientific evidence proves that a great increase of planes cannot affect the upper stratosphere” – NO, IT DOESN’T AT ALL. Few aircraft fly in the UPPER stratosphere. They fly in the lower stratosphere, just above the tropopause. The stratosphere is easily affected by combustion exhaust water, because it is stable, and has only sublimation into water vapor, and the force of gravity upon the ice crystals, causing them to fall, as mechanisms for removal. Contrails spread in saturated or supersaturated conditions to cover the whole sky. What scientific evidence is this?

storm

“you’re implying that air-layers combine suitably within an hour” – stratospheric layers don’t combine at all, but they may be filled with ice crystals as the planes’ wave vortices stir the layer contents.

“50’s, 60’s and 70’s disseminated all over Britain (millions of ppl affected)” – YOU’RE MISTAKEN AGAIN. Didn’t you know that WATER, KILLED BACTERIA, and a PHOSPHORESCENT DYE are HARMLESS? Please refer to me the records indicating that millions of people were affected. And, anyway, wasn’t this to do with finding out how to combat Russian germ warfare attack? Before you make free with the FALSEHOODS you should look up contrailscience.com and find out how your blathering stands up to reality. And for a further perspective on Man versus Nature you could look up my blog on:

http://www.myspace.com/jazzroc

BLOBLAW005

I’ve debated the contrail vs. chemtrail theories with jazzroc for the past couple of months. I did present a well researched and thought out scientific argument to him. His response was to delete my comments from his weblog, and to block any comments I post.

That’s because:

a) you didn’t debate anything: you posted using an anonymous email address – once. That isn’t a debate. If you look in that inbox you’ll find letters from me still awaiting your response.

b) your research was poor and your science non-existent. There was nothing in your post which advanced anything. Except sophistry.

Contrails are known and measured as part of atmospheric science. It is “chemtrails” that is a theory.

What about the Bergeron-Findeisen theory? Can persistent contrails exist if the Bergeron-Findeisen theory were true?

If there ARE differing vapour pressure requirements for deposition of water onto either super-cooled droplets or ice crystals, then the Bergeron-Findeisen Theory is true, and the droplets will evaporate in favour of deposition onto the ice crystals. The evaporation will then raise the humidity, making it even more likely that the next aircraft will leave a permanent trail. Super-cooled droplets are produced aerodynamically over the wings in marginally-warmer conditions: the exhausts produce ice crystals at -40 or colder, which is the general rule over 30,000 feet.

But that makes no difference to the final outcome, which is that persistent contrails are clouds of ice crystals which cannot evaporate into the fully-saturated atmosphere which surrounds them.

Nor to the conclusions one can draw, which are:

a) that persistent trails are natural, and not the confirmation of “chemtrails”, and

b) all other “proofs” having been shown to be fraudulent, the case for “chemtrails” is non-existent.

Were you to study any physics at all, your “theory” would vanish, your “debate” disappear. 

BLUSTER

“tell not contrails” – NO YOU CANNOT. See below.

“My entire life this never happened” – It was happening BEFORE YOU WERE BORN.

“I watch planes/real contrails, and they disappear, but these chemtrails DO Not” – Your assumption is INCORRECT. Contrails CAN and DO persist in HUMID stratospheric conditions.

“only spray where the population lives” – Above every town is a RISING PLUME of HEAT and HUMIDITY. Contrails MAY persist in these plumes. Also you may care to check out satellite pictures from space, which show quite clearly that the trails form within humid atmospheric conditions.

“How stupid do they think people are?” – How stupid do you wish to remain?

“back and forth over the towns” – These are SEPARATE planes, each either COMING or GOING. No videos have ever shown a “spraying” plane circling to respray a town, because these aircraft are civil flights from one major airport to another.

“Why?” – Your answer’s above…

“targeting these areas/get the full benefit of the poisons” – JUST BULLSHIT AND BLUSTER (LIES). Just dial up a satellite view and you will see contrails wherever the atmosphere is moist. That is, randomly over land AND ocean, wherever the conditions are HUMID.

yourlungsglowlikeabeacon

 BOOBLUBE

It is YOU that has been handed a line – which you cannot handle.

Don’t send me any more “information”. I am a very fast reader and have read and seen everything you’ve seen.

You have a problem with reasoning. Any reasonable educated person would listen to Carnicom for about FIVE minutes, and then switch him off. The reason he would do that is that he breaks all the rules of journalism and science. Instead of supplying EVIDENCE and PROOF he makes further assertions, breaking the “legal” chain of evidence. If you cannot see that I am sorry for you, but I’m no longer prepared to help you.

What makes you think that airborne materials MUST have come from an airplane, for instance? Do you KNOW how far vapour trail materials DRIFT? I don’t even need a calculator to tell you – from an altitude of seven miles it’s going to be AT LEAST TWO HUNDRED MILES DOWNWIND.

What makes you think that as you read this, you are NOT ingesting pathogens and metals? I can tell you that, for sure, you ARE, AND HAVE ALWAYS BEEN INGESTING THEM. YOU ALWAYS WILL.

Your body is a DYNAMIC device, evolved over 4 billion years to COPE with such stresses. It WILL eliminate those metals AND KILL those pathogens.

germs

It’s just a question of degree…

You lack the scientific understanding to prevent you from freely believing the UNBELIEVABLE.

DO SOMETHING ABOUT IT.

“Namely, they persist for hours (eventually turning into a haze that doesn’t go away”

They’re in the stratosphere. That is, above five miles UP, about a fifth of atmospheric pressure, as warm as -40 deg C, maybe as cold as -80 deg, which is colder than the surface of Mars.

mars

Passing planes laying 100lb of ICE per mile will SOON saturate the stratospheric layer they are in. Once that happens, the ice of the trail CANNOT SUBLIME ANY MORE INTO WATER VAPOUR. It MUST remain. It WILL persist for hours. The only reason it doesn’t persist for EVER, is that it is HEAVY, and FALLING.

“water doesn’t act that way” -You are WRONG. Water in the stratosphere is ICE. Not ice like in your fridge, more like finely powdered GLASS. I’ve lived in Germany, and deep in the continental land mass the temperature can fall very low in winter. I have experienced -40 deg C, and let me tell you ICE ISN’T EVEN SLIPPERY AT -40 DEG C. It is HARD and it is DRY. Say you were in a balloon at 32,000 feet and an Airbus came just by you at 575mph.

chemtrailsfront

You’d be amazed at its speed, and also its colossal WAVE VORTEX, as it whirled the two trails around itself in two columns fifty yards across. The trail would sting your face like wind-whipped sand on a beach. Of course, your face would fall off with the intense cold as well…

“they are sprayed from unmarked aircraft” – WRONG AGAIN. They are marked, but the markings become invisible from the ground due to a phenomenon called “blue light scattering”. Had the plane been painted BLACK, from the ground you would see NO PLANE AT ALL

“they stop and start in a manner not consistent with normal contrail formation” – WRONG AGAIN. They start and stop PERFECTLY consistent with normal contrail formation. The trails are created in saturated or supersaturated air. The “inconsistency” is firmly in your understanding of the nature of the stratosphere.

Your mistake lies in assuming that these AIRS are DISTINGUISHABLE: they are NOT. All types of air are TRANSPARENT, get it? INVISIBLE! Hence a plane flying through dry air leaves no trail. It hits a humid area: it leaves a trail. Stop, start, stop, start. This can happen for miles: stratospheric layers frequently form ripples as a consequence of atmospheric compressibility following on downwind from upward ground projections such as ridges and mountains…

lenticularcloud

“photographed as not even coming from the engines” – That’s right. Either a) You don’t understand that the time taken for the exhaust to cool down from +1100 degrees to -40 degrees manifests itself as a GAP, or b) the plane has hit SUPERSATURATED air, when the WHOLE AIRFRAME sets a trail and the tightest vortices (wingtips, control surface ends) will cause the MOST ICE to get dumped.

“I don’t remember them as a child or teen” – I DO. I was always keen on aircraft, making them from the age of 7. Why would you? You wouldn’t be LOOKING for them. In our lifetime we’ve seen a TREMENDOUS increase in low-cost air travel, and a VERY RECENT increase in cheap videocams, and reduction in educational standards…

vcam

“the media will not talk about the issue” – They only talk about things that increase their sales. They also have good scientific advice which deters them from printing unconsidered rubbish. Living on the Spanish Canary Islands, I don’t read the media much…

“and some other reasons” – You better tell me what they are, for so far you have NOTHING… 

BRITANNICA

britannicaIt says IN THE ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA:

http://contrailscience.com/persisting-and-spreading-contrails

Contrail, streamer of cloud sometimes observed behind an airplane flying in clear, cold, humid air. It forms upon condensation of the water vapour produced by the combustion of fuel in the airplane engines. When the ambient relative humidity is high, the resulting ice-crystal plume may last for several hours. The trail may be distorted by the winds, and sometimes it spreads outwards to form a layer of cirrus cloud.

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9074829 

Broken Contrails

from “Uncinus” of “Contrailscience”

Contrails are clouds made from water vapor that condenses then freezes behind a plane engine. Since the engines are on constantly, it seems a bit odd when you see contrails with gaps in them, or even contrails that stop and start. If the engine is pumping out a constant amount of water, then why is the trail not constant? This puzzle is sometimes seized on by people who think that persistent contrails are actually “chemtrails”, or some kind of deliberate spraying operation.

But it’s actually very simple. The amount of water in the exhaust is pretty constant, but the amount of moisture in the air is not. The humidity varies with altitude in the stratosphere, and a layer of low humidity can be sandwiched between two layers of high humidity. As a plane climbs or descends through this layer, then the trail will only form in the areas of high humidity, and so look like it was “switched off” in the area of low humidity.

You can get the same effect with temperature. A warm layer of air can actually lay on top of a colder layer in what is called an “inversion” (you’ll hear this on the weather sometimes, referred to as an “inversion layer”). When a plane flies through this inversion layer, the trail can be “broken”.

It’s not just climbing or descending flights either. The boundaries between these layers is not flat, and gravity waves or rising convection currents of air can create large volumes of air that differ in temperature and/or humidity from the neighboring air, and so can break (or make) the contrail when the plane flies through them.

Don’t take my word for it though. Do a Google search for “broken contrail” and you’ll find lots of examples, and similar explanations.

NOAA – “Occasionally a jet plane, especially if ascending or descending, will pass through a much drier or more moist layer of atmosphere which may result in a broken pattern to the contrail, with it appearing in segments rather than in one continuous plume.”

AirSpace Magazine – “If the contrail stops, then starts up again, creating a broken line, chances are the airplane flew through a dry patch.”

Doc Weather – “What is happening here is that warm air rising from the ground carries vast amounts of water vapor upwards into the highest levels of the atmosphere. This water vapor exists as massive, plumes of warm, moist air ascending to very high levels. When a rising plume reaches the upper atmosphere it condenses into high ice clouds known as cirrus or feather clouds. In the case of the jet contrail (condensation trail) in the first image, the condensing cloud formed where the aircraft passed through a rising plume of moist warm air. The air on either side of the plume was not sufficiently moist to support the formation of an enduring cloud. As a result the contrail only remained visible in the warm plume.”

brokentrails

Now study the pictures above. The one on the left was entitled “broken contrail”, the one on the right “broken chemtrail”. If you know anything about analyzing computer jpg files, you will discover the one on the right to be FAKED (even though a telephone wire appears to pass through the “gap” in the “trail”.

Interesting, isn’t it? The “broken contrail” is honest, the “broken chemtrail” fake… 

BUTT

Sniker, you don’t know the WHY so don’t tell me the HOW.

It’s a case of RELATIVE humidity and DEW POINT. HOT WATER VAPOUR, which is what “steam” is, can only MAKE UP the air’s humidity to its 100% RH level as it cools down. Beyond that it MUST form droplets of water or crystals of ice, depending on the air temperature.

In either case (troposphere or stratosphere) if the air doesn’t get to its 100% RH the water will evaporate or sublime into water vapour over a short period. Stratospheric air is MORE LIKELY to be saturated or supersaturated BECAUSE it is LAMINAR, whereas the troposphere is TURBULENT, being the BOUNDARY LAYER. Hence you sometimes get PERSISTENT TRAILS in the stratosphere.

Jets DO leave WATER contrails down below in humid 95%+ conditions where they occur (tropics mostly) but they are more difficult to see, and CT guys aren’t videoing there. There is a YT CT vid which clearly shows the APU (auxiliary power unit – all passenger planes have them) laying a faint trail (in Canada!), before it makes its stupid claim.

Clifford Carnicom forswore Science with his website. From his “USAF lies to America”, to his analysis (from the ground!) of a “chemtrail”, his site is a FARRAGO OF DECEIT. If you had ever made a study of LOGIC or ANALYSIS, you’d KNOW.

“just swipe your finger on random sufaces and hold up to sun and see the metal particals!” – You live in an INDUSTRIALIZED SOCIETY. You should expect CRAP in your air. Learn to spell. 

CAPS

Sorry to disappoint. Here goes:

“antagonistic to empire/super-state comprising pentagon/blah/nasa, why do you think population culling is off the table” – because while it may be possible to blow away a president, and even easy to blow away a nonentity, it becomes very much harder to blow away the vast majority. Wars are a mess, and the only quick and final war would be a nuclear spasm. Poisons and diseases are slow, and have poor coverage. Logistically they are impossible. Practically they don’t work because people can move! Angry people (the ones you’ve missed!) become ferocious opponents. Ask the Germans about the Poles. Talk to Americans about the Vietnamese. To Israeli Jews about Palestinians. The Kurds about Iraqis.

conspiracy_tot21

“why not read history as if you were not immune to it” – I have done. It’s the only way to develop an immunity.

“you are a pawn” – I may have been a pawn, but no longer. If necessary I shall simply sail away. If anyone interferes with me I shall interfere with them.

“the industrial age drawing to a close” – Give me strength! There is more industry now than there has ever been. Knowledge hasn’t drawn to a close. Ability hasn’t drawn to a close. Necessity is the mother of invention. Take a look at the Afghans. The Pacific Ring…   …China…

china

“new game in the offing” – Yeah, yeah. Robots blah blah. There’s a great lawnmower and a great vacuum cleaner. Get out the Gray Goo, let’s off the peeps. You haven’t a clue.

“much fewer pawns” – stop reading science fiction and take a look outside. Out, not up! Sorry about the missing caps.

pawn

Written by JazzRoc

November 14, 2008 at 1:00 am

Posted in Aviation, chemtrails, contrails, science, Truth

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Careful with that Cloud

with 2 comments

PAGE CONTENTS

CHEMTRAILS AND FALSIFICATION – CAREFUL WITH THAT CLOUD – CARNICOM – THE CASE AGAINST CHEMTRAILS – CELESTIAL EMPORIUM – CELLPHONES – CHAFF (& RADAR) – YOUTUBE CHAFFERY – CHECKERED – CHERRY – CHUPACABRA – CONTRAILS TO CIRRUS – STARS15K’s REFERENCE LIST

Don’t forget my other pages, links and comments are one click away at the top right of the page…

Devastating raid on Hamburg in 1943

CHEMTRAILS AND FALSIFICATION

in the style of Anthony Flew – taken (with considerable ironic appreciation) from his “Theology and Falsification”

Let us begin with a parable. It is a parable developed from a tale told by Riordan O’Flaherty in his haunting and revolutionary article “Chemtrails B.C.”

Once upon a time two young adventurers came upon a hilltop. Growing in the sky above were many trails in a tic-tac-toe and also a grey overcast. One explorer says, “Some chemtrailing is being done today.” The other disagrees, “There is no chemtrailing taking place.” So they pitch their tents and set a watch, and devise methods to discover chemtrails. No matter how hard or what they try, no evidence for chemtrails is ever found. “But perhaps it is an invisible chemtrail.” So they set up an air sampling machine. (For they remember how H. G. Well’s The Invisible Man could be both smelt and touched though he could not be seen). But no suspect materials are ever found in the sampler filter. Yet still the chemtrailer is not convinced. “But there is a chemtrail, invisible, intangible, insensible, a chemtrail which has no scent and leaves no trace, a chemtrail which is subtly killing us.” At last the debunker despairs, “But what remains of your original assertion? Just how does what you call an invisible, intangible, eternally elusive chemtrail differ from an imaginary chemtrail or even from no chemtrail at all?”

In this parable we can see how what starts as an assertion, that something exist or that there is some analogy between certain complexes of phenomena, may be reduced step by step to an altogether different status, to an expression perhaps of a “picture preference.” The debunker says there is no chemtrail. The chemtrailer says there is a chemtrail (but invisible, etc.). One man talks about sexual behaviour. Another man prefers to talk of Aphrodite (but knows that there is not really a superhuman person additional to, and somehow responsible for, all sexual phenomena). The process of qualification may be checked at any point before the original assertion is completely withdrawn and something of that first assertion will remain (Tautology).

Mr. Wells’ invisible man could not, admittedly, be seen, but in all other respects he was a man like the rest of us. But though the process of qualification may be and of course usually is, checked in time, it is not always judicially so halted. Someone may dissipate his assertion completely without noticing that he has done so. A fine brash hypothesis may thus be killed by inches, the death by a thousand qualifications.

And in this, it seems to me, lies the peculiar danger, the endemic evil, of chemtrail utterance. Take such utterances as “chemtrails are planned,” “chemtrails cover the world,” “chemtrails are poisoning us with toxins, carcinogens and bacterial agents.” They look at first sight very much like assertions, vast cosmological assertions. Of course, this is no sure sign that they either are, or are intended to be, assertions. But let us confine ourselves to the cases where those who utter such sentences intended them to express assertions. (Merely remarking parenthetically that those who intend or interpret such utterances as crypto-commands, expressions of wishes, disguised ejaculations, concealed ethics, or as anything else but assertions, are unlikely to succeed in making them either properly orthodox or practically effective).

Now to assert that such and such is the case is necessarily equivalent to denying that such and such is not the case. Suppose then that we are in doubt as to what someone who gives vent to an utterance is asserting, or suppose that, more radically, we are debunkers, as to whether he is really asserting anything at all, one way of trying to understand (or perhaps to expose) his utterance is to attempt to find what he would regard as counting against, or as being incompatible with, its truth. For if the utterance is indeed an assertion, it will necessarily be equivalent to a denial of the negation of the assertion. And anything which would count against the assertion, or which would induce the speaker to withdraw it and to admit that it had been mistaken, must be part of (or the whole of) the meaning of the negation of that assertion. And to know the meaning of the negation of an assertion, is as near as makes no matter, to know the meaning of that assertion. And if there is nothing which a putative assertion denies then there is nothing which it asserts either: and so it is not really an assertion. When the debunker in the parable asked the chemtrailer, “Just how does what you call an invisible, intangible, eternally elusive chemtrail differ from an imaginary chemtrail or even from no chemtrail at all?” he was suggesting that the chemtrailer’s earlier statement had been so eroded by qualification that it was no longer an assertion at all.


Now it often seems to people who are not “truthers” as if there was no conceivable event or series of events the occurrence of which would be admitted by dedicated chemtrailers to be a sufficient reason for conceding “there aren’t any chemtrails after all” or “chemtrails have been figments of  our imagination”. Someone tells us that chemtrails exist: the German Government has admitted it. We are reassured. But then months go by without a sign of chemtrails in the sky. Some qualification is made — “the PTB are re-organizing their campaigns and new materials will soon be dispersed” which are quite compatible with the truth of the assertion that chemtrails are real, after all, you only have to look at what has been done in the past. We are reassured again. But then perhaps we ask: what evidence do we have of chemtrails, what is this apparent stand really a stand against? Just what would have to happen not merely (morally and wrongly) to tempt but also (logically and rightly) to entitle us to say “chemtrails are highly unlikely” or even “chemtrails do not exist”?

I therefore put to the aforesaid enthusiasts the simple central questions,

“What would have to occur or to have occurred to constitute for you a disproof of the existence of chemtrails?”

.

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CAREFUL WITH THAT CLOUD

assumption

“i can make reasonable assumptions.” – I’m sure it was once reasonable to assume the Sun went round the Earth.

“what about alleged contrails under 8km where the temp is warmer than -40?” – It is a function of DEW POINT, not just TEMPERATURE – check the definitions.

“what about the orbs that have been observed in and around the trails?” – I agree with you that there ARE baffling atmospheric phenomena (UFOs), but CANNOT LINK THEM TO CONSPIRACIES.

“what about sudden, noticeable increases in flyovers/trails in areas where there are few (if any) major flight paths” – Stratospheric overground speeds may exceed 120mph. That’s from horizon to horizon in SIX MINUTES.

“all those patents on the topic” – OUTSIDE MY EXPERIENCE, BUT HAVE YOU EVER VISITED A PATENT OFFICE? That I’ve done. Homer Simpson is a major contributor.

“and Dennis Kucinich’s mention of chemtrails” – Haven’t read him, but the whole story’s laid bare at contrailscience.com.

Here’s a note from a drafter of the bill, Dr. Carol Rosin:

Comment
From Carol Rosin
rosin@west.net
1-28-2

Perhaps I can help correct some fuzzy information that is being spread about H.R.3616, the Space Preservation Act of 2002, and Congressman Dennis Kucinich.

This bill will only ban space-based weapons and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit. It is NOT a bill to ban chemtrails and/or psychotronics or mind control devises or any specific weapons listed in the category of definitions in the original bill. I’m not sure where that rumor started, but in any case, those definitions were only listed on the original bill for definitional purposes… to exemplify what space-based weapons might be deployed in space if the space-based weapons bill isn’t passed. Frequently bills are revised, and things like definitions are removed. No big deal. The legislation is in no way compromised. This Congressman and his legislation maintain their integrity and commitment to ban space-based weapons. It was never a bill to ban chemtrails or mind-control technologies.

Congressman Dennis Kucinich is a champion of progressive issues. He is a sane man, he has integrity, he is courageous, and he is spiritually aware. We are lucky to have this legislation to ban space-based weapons introduced in the current atmosphere by this statesman.

President Bush will break the ABM Treaty in June. Then he can deploy space-based weapons under the guise of it being “MERELY testing.” This administration has announced its commitment to “dominate and control” Earth and space. I don’t think some people want that to happen.

People and organizations are connecting in what could become the fastest growing movement in history… to ban ALL space-based weapons and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit.

rosin

This bill does not prohibit space exploration, space research and development, etc., of a non space-based weapons nature. It does prohibit firing one or more projectiles to collide with that object or person, detonating one of more explosive devices in close proximity to that object or person, directing a source of energy against that object or person, or any other means. And it allows for the civil, commercial or defense activities (including communications, navigation, surveillance, reconnaissance, early warning, or remote sensing) that are NOT related to space-based weapons or systems.

There is a compatible World Treaty Banning Space-based Weapons being circulated that calls for a world space peacekeeping agency to monitor and enforce the ban. The Plan of Action will be announced mid-February. Hundreds of groups have already signed on to support the Kucinich legislation, and people are networking worldwide in solidarity about this who have different perspectives and issues but who know that we only have one chance in time to get this national and world law passed to ban space-based weapons.

Congressman Kucinich deserves our appreciation and support. A Senator will introduce this soon, as will a nation-state leader. Go to www.peaceinspace.com to find out more.

Thank you.

Carol Rosin President,
Institute for Cooperation in Space

“obscuration of your blue sky w/ webby cloud things” – Supersaturated conditions bring down a contrail by persistent agglomeration. At first the rate of sink of a contrail ice particle is measured in inches per minute. As the particle size increases its sink rate increases. It becomes a raindrop and falls at 40mph, but COULD become a HAILSTONE and fall at 100mph. It could end up in a HAILSTORM!

Or if it meets drier, warmer conditions it could DISAPPEAR RIGHT AWAY. If you look up on a cloudy but rainless day you can often see that the under surface of a cloud is RAINING, the rain falls for a thousand feet or so, peters out, is GONE.

I’ve often looked up at falling agglomerating contrails (they develop a very ragged lower edge like a woodsaw blade and drop many thousands of feet) but only thought “falling agglomerating contrails” of course.

Sometimes cirrus (typically a boundary between strat layers) goes critical as it falls, and a circular “hole” appears in it as persistent agglomeration sets in. It’s quite a dramatic (but natural) effect.

holecloud_knain

This, I notice, has also been MISCONSTRUED as evidence for spraying.

CARNICOM

“very proud of his knowledge in atmospherics” – No. I had a general idea you must be wrong, and so I went away and STUDIED the phenomena. I know MUCH more now than I did two months ago. You could do the same.

“very attached to being right and superior to those lesser mortals” – Look, I’m JUST as fallible as the next guy. It is only your lack of DISCIPLINE which is the distinction.

“hard for him to let go of what he knows” – Man, I was STRAIGHT for the first half of the sixties. The second half, I looked like JC, and I kept that way until my hair fell onto my pillow. I have been unstinting in mysearch for knowledge….

“near the subject of scalar weapons” – You have missed this. I could explain to you (but you wouldn’t believe me) that HAARP’s EM energy can be either FOCUSSED ((SHORTWAVE) where it becomes local, very intense and dangerous) or DIFFUSE ((LONGWAVE) where it can travel round the Earth, but cannot be focussed, or intense, or dangerous). You typically confuse these two together, add 2 + 2 to make 5, and hypothesize gibberish. ELF radiation is TOO WEAK to do anything important (except long-distance radio communication), and POWER requirements are DRASTIC. The HAARP antenna is directed at the IONOSPHERE, where it essentially heats the very thin gas up there. It has the focussing power of Mr. Magoo, squints at a TINY portion of the Earth’s sky, and still draws a BUNCH of energy. The Europeans have something TEN TIMES bigger. Presumably WE will be dead TEN TIMES faster. Or NOT! These places are NOT WEAPONS. In your ignorance and fear you are ascribing POWER where NONE exists.

magooanddog

“the other phenomena” – Look, I’ve had the misfortune to hear this video over and over again, and it only gets worse and worse. Clifford Carnicom is a confident liar who heaps baseless assertion upon baseless assertion, ALWAYS BEGINNING WITH A DOWNRIGHT LIE. I’m sure it springs from a CYNICAL CONFIDENCE that the gullible public would rather believe him than read ANY BOOK ABOUT SCIENCE.

He NEVER acknowledges ANY distinction between the TROPOSPHERE and the STRATOSPHERE, for that would destroy his lead argument.

Once you understand that distinction, then you’ll see that air sampling at GROUND LEVEL is IRRELEVANT. The world is HUGE place, full of sources of poison and infection, mould spores, viruses, most of which are natural, the remaining man-made. Mould spores were collected in air samples at the poles in the early part of the 20th century. The island I live on occasionally endures a KALIMA – a wind from the Sahara Desert full of sand and spores and pollens which causes respiratory distress to some.

“nicola tesla’s work was real” – and so it was – to a point (alternating current, induction motors, and no further). He made the mistake (which I have in the past quite instinctively avoided) of going wherever the BIG MONEY TOOK HIM. I’m fairly sure it killed him. Or maybe it was his insanity..

.

.

THE CASE AGAINST CHEMTRAILS

The Case against Chemtrailshttp://www.survivalistboards.com/showthread.php?t=60962 – A spirited attack against the “chemtrail hypothesis” by DakotaS – “a common realist”.

I won’t give you much information about myself, or any specific details about higher education or experience, I will just give you hard facts and first-hand proof that includes my personal logic, with many references to other solid debunkings.
It doesn’t take a Masters in Atmospheric Science to debunk this.
I live directly under the approach path for runway 10/28 (28) at Atlanta International airport, and I have a very clear view of planes landing on the other runways. (KATL’s runways are parallel.)
Medium to large aircraft with multiple engines fly under 3500 feet over or near our house heading to the threshold all day and all night long.
These pictures were taken off the deck on the back of my house around 7 or 8 (sorry for the bad quality):
I don’t really need these to prove anything, but here are a few quick “Chemtrail” photos over my house: We have some very elderly neighbors that live next door, and they have lived here for over 50 years and report actually getting healthier after they moved here from the northeast. You’re probably thinking; “well of course they got healthier, the airports in the northeast are busier than little-ole-Atlanta!”  Wrong.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World%2…senger_traffic
Not a day goes by that I don’t see an aircraft flying at low altitude over my house. How do I handle the noise? I don’t even notice it unless I want to, my brain has apparently tuned it out completely over the years. Of course, sometimes I get woken up when a DHL DC-8 flies over, but those are louder than most aircraft.
http://www.airliners.net/photo/DHL-(…36a99e2a982055
Furthermore, Atlanta airport is the home of the famous ATL VOR (VHF Omni-directional Radio Range for those who don’t know), which is used as a waypoint for most flights coming from South America, the Caribbean, and Florida on their way to the Northeast or beyond.
Aircraft flying at high altitudes leave “chemtrails” over my area all the time, much more than your average city.
While most aircraft no longer use the old radio-to-radio navigation of the 70s and 80s, ATL VOR remains a very commonly used waypoint for air travel.
Here is a live radar view of part of the Atlanta Center airspace provided by Flight-Aware. Flights in blue are to/from KATL; flights in green are in the vicinity. (aka flying over ATL VOR or over south Atlanta): http://flightaware.com/live/airport/KATL The radar is at the upper right.
After all this, I take NO medication of any kind, I have excellent vision, no real hearing issues, no green warts growing all over my body, and no strange mutations. Must be those Chemtrails.
Quote: Originally Posted by FreeDictionary.com con·trail (kon-trail) n. A visible trail of streaks of condensed water vapor or ice crystals sometimes forming in the wake of an aircraft. Also called vapor trail.
In this section will explain some of the most popular arguments for the Chemtrail myth using scientific facts and details.
Argument 1
How do you explain their duration of many hours or length in 100’s of miles?
Vapor/contrails cool and dissipate almost instantly. How long a contrail lingers is completely determined by how much moisture is in the air. (aka Humidity) It is similar to what happens when you can see your breath on a cold day, sometimes your breath is only visible for an instant, sometimes it billows up and dissipates before eventually disappearing.
http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasc…9/gen99839.htm
Aircraft contrails are similar to this because the exhaust gas temperature can reach 1100 deg C, and contains plenty of moisture.
The surrounding air at high altitudes on the other hand can be -40 deg C, and will always produce a contrail unless there is little or no moisture in the atmosphere. (This explains why some people claim they rarely see contrails over deserts like outback Australia or the American Midwest.)
Argument 2
I’ve seen commercial flights nearly side by side one creating a trail that disappears quickly, while the other creates a trail that lingers for hours. This is proof of Chemtrails.
What you saw was two aircraft flying at different altitudes, the temperature gets cooler as you get higher, therefore the water vapor contrails will linger much longer at 36,000 feet as compared to 15,000 feet. The aircraft you saw could also have been different models, with older and newer engines which will create different contrails every time.
Argument 3
Then why aren’t there any “normal” clouds forming at the same time and altitude?
There are ‘normal’ clouds at high altitudes.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cirrus_cloud
Cirrus clouds almost always form above 26,000ft, except on colder days where they may be as low as 18,000 feet. Generally however, these ‘low altitude cirrus clouds’ are classified as Cirrostratus.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cirrostratus
Cirrus clouds are almost always mistaken as chemtrail ‘blankets’.
Argument 4
I never saw these contrails 30 years ago, something is different now.
What is different: the aircraft – the aircraft’s engines – the altitudes that aircraft fly at – the amount of air traffic – the air traffic control system itself.
30 years ago, aircraft and aircraft travel were dramatically different from what they are now.
Namely, in the 1960s – 1980s the (Boeing only for example) 727, 737, and 747 were introduced. The 707 was the one of the most popular aircraft of that time and I will use that as an example. We will obviously focus on the engines because that is the source of these ‘different’ contrails.
The 707 used Turbofan JT8D-200 with 21,700 Pounds of thrust. The 727 used the same engines originally, and was actually the original rollout aircraft to use this type of engine.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pratt_%….28JT8D-200.29
http://www.airliners.net/photo/Ameri…d23754bebb59a4
High-bypass engines are more likely to make robust contrails than the low-bypass smoke-makers of the 60s, 70s, and parts of the 80s. Most if not all these planes have been retired, or upgraded and sold to cargo airlines. There was much less air traffic during the 60s and 70s as well.
http://www.icao.int/icao/en/nr/1960/pio196023_e.pdf
Quote: “…in both 1959 and in 1960 these aircraft flew a total of 8.9 million hours…”
I couldn’t find the exact number of hours flown in 2008, but you can’t tell me it is not more by hundreds of percents. (It’s 5000 percent!)
http://ec.europa.eu/research/transpo…graph_6448.gif
Maybe you didn’t see them at all, or you saw something different, but other people have.
http://contrailscience.com/thirty-co…rty-years-ago/
Contrails photographed and documented in early 1940s films:
YouTube – UK Contrails in 1941
YouTube – BattleOfTheBulgeContrails
YouTube – Memphis Belle WWII Bomber Contrails -…
“Vapour trails left by British bombers on route to attack flying-bomb sites encircle the dome of St. Paul’s Cathedral. London, 1944.”
http://pro.corbis.com/Enlargement/En…er=imagegroups
There are more airplanes in the sky these days…
http://contrailscience.com/there-are…ts-in-the-air/
I believe I’ve said enough about this argument.
Argument 5
We have seen satellite photos clearly showing chemtrails that generally see increased patterns over populated areas.
I guess they are talking about a photo like this: http://oea.larc.nasa.gov/news_rels/2…contrails1.jpg
This increase of ‘chemtrails’ can be attributed to one thing; an increase of air travel, and the change of the Air Traffic Control System in 1995.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class_E…AO_definitions
As I said at the beginning, most aircraft now have advanced FMC/FMS/MCDU systems that use predetermined Latitude/Longitude waypoints to get the aircraft to where it is going, but they still use ATL and other VOR radios as waypoints, with the NAV radios as backup. There is a VOR radio, or common waypoints at virtually all airports above regional. VORs don’t even have to be at airports…
Heres a random Google images photo of a VOR transmitter: http://www.triodetic.com/Photos/Web%…Photos/VOR.jpg
Argument 6
If these are really commercial aircraft, then why are some contrails vertical?
They are not vertical. Please don’t take this as condescending… But the earth is A SPHERE. A flight in the distance coming straight at you is most likely flying straight and level, but because they are coming up over the horizon, it appears they are leaving vertical contrails.
Argument 7
This picture proves that the government is using airline aircraft to spray chemicals over cities: http://www.airliners.net/photo/Boein…-LR/0855967/L/ .
I have gotten this one a lot recently, and it can be explained easily. What you are seeing is a Boeing 777-200 aircraft fitted with extensive flight-test instrumentation, measuring equipment and ballast tanks that can be filled with water to simulate the weight of a full load of passengers and cargo. This method of testing has been used for years and years and years. Look it up. The video showing this is a cynical forgery.
Argument 8
How do you explain the documented traces of Barium Oxide in the air of large cities?
First of all, the Military has developed a method of reducing jet emissions using Barium Oxide in 1995.
http://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=get…fier=ADA294773
Quote: Originally Posted by Above Military report “…This report describes laboratory studies of a new NOx control process based on the surprising ability of barium oxide to rapidly capture NO, a process that could be ideally suited to controlling NOx emission from jet engine test cells…”
It is widely known that a type of Barium is used in the manufacture of rubber and plastics, which is common in parts of aircraft fuel tanks, and fuel storage containers on the ground. Generally, the manufactures of fuel tank parts don’t worry about getting a little barium in jet fuel, they are not expecting it to be drank… Barium is actually a very widely-used substance in industrial manufacturing, so it is not surprising to find Barium Oxide in the air.
Argument 9
How do you explain the traces of aluminum found in our air and water supply?
Aluminum is a VERY common metal. It is found in CLAY (as complex silicates of aluminum) and lightweight parts find their way into the kitchen, the automotive, sipbuilding and aero=industries.
It is a lightweight metal that is prized for its strength-to-weight ratio. Aluminum is here to stay folks and it’s all around you, even in the computer you are reading this on… so get used to it.
Argument 10
Chemtrails leave large shadows and dark lines in the atmosphere, this is not natural and normal contrails don’t do this.
I’ll let this web-page do the debunking of this: http://contrailscience.com/contrails…es-chemtrails/
Argument 11
Photographs have been taken that clearly show aircraft making grid patterns over cities, this is clearly a coordinated attack on our population.
I had typed up a long explanation for this, but after 3rd editing, I decided I would just show you the following videos and live radar maps:
YouTube – Highly Skilled Air Traffic Controller
YouTube – Fed Ex Ant Hill (and that was only Fedex…)
YouTube – typical USA Air Traffic – ALL active…
YouTube – Atlanta Flight Animation (And that was only Atlanta, the airport I live 7 miles from.)
YouTube – AIR TRAFFIC 24 HOUR SPAN
http://flightaware.com/live/
There are thousands upon thousands of aircraft airborne at ANY GIVEN TIME, they are bound to cross each others path once in a while.
Argument 12
We see airshow aircraft releasing smoke and gas all the time, why couldn’t the government do it?
First of all, I never said the government COULDN’T do it, I’m sure if they wanted to they could, but it just doesn’t happen. Again, Contrailscience.com explains it as it is. ‘THINGS THAT ARE NOT CONTRAILS (OR CHEMTRAILS):
http://contrailscience.com/things-th…or-chemtrails/
Argument 13
This photo is proof that chemicals are being sprayed from aircraft; clearly something is coming out of the wings of this aircraft! http://www.airliners.net/photo/Virgi…642/1088680/L/
Oh no, another “proof” photograph… This is one of nature’s amazing things that happens when humans fly around like birds… this is not only a contrail, but also an aerodynamic contrail which is formed by the sudden reduction and normalizing of pressure in the air as it moves over and around the wing. When the pressure of air is reduced (or any gas for that matter), its temperature also falls. The reduced temperature causes microscopic drops of water to condense, which then will freeze in the frigid temperature of the high altitude. The frozen drops get larger as more water condenses and freezes on them. The different sized ice crystals have different optical properties, which affect different wavelengths of light, which will cause the spectrum of light to become visible, and this explains the “rainbow” effect. This is a more scientific explanation for this effect courtesy of Contrailscience.com:
http://contrailscience.com/files/Gie…ter_060625.pdf
Argument 14
I have personally sat and watched aircraft turn their contrails on and off, this cannot be explained by chemtrail debunkers.
What you are seeing is aerodynamic contrails (as explained above) forming in patchy air.
YouTube – Scia off – Scia on
Scientific explanations:
http://contrailscience.com/files/AC%…%20physics.pdf
http://contrailscience.com/files/Aer…Properties.pdf
http://contrailscience.com/broken-contrails/
Argument 15
During high chemtrail activity, hospital visits and sickness is reported to go up, this is clear proof that chemicals are present in aircraft contrails.
Airline activity only goes up or down depending on what time of day it is, and it is fairly consistent.
Let’s take the worlds busiest airport as an example: http://flightaware.com/analysis/graphs/airport/KATL
What you are feeling is allergies, and general bad feeling. This is because contrails will generally linger longer in higher humidity and dropping pressure, two things that commonly occur before a rain or thunderstorm. In the days following documentation of lingering contrails, rain or general bad weather usually occur.
Argument 16
Airline pilots acknowledge the existence of chemtrails.
No they don’t. Airline pilots deny, and can prove the contrary because they happen to know more than the average conspiracy theorist who sits behind their computer all day. My favorite debunking of chemtrails by an Airline Pilot with 15 years of experience:
http://ryanthepilot.blogspot.com/200…hemtrails.html
If anyone would like to submit an argument, I’d be more than happy to produce a freshly-baked debunking for it.
A rant of logic…
Aerial spraying from airline altitude would be a highly inefficient and imprecise mode of delivering toxic chemicals to ground-based targets. For example, Pesticides are often sprayed on crops from airplanes flying at 30ft and below. Mosquito spraying is generally done from an altitude of 150 feet or less. Chemtrails are supposedly sprayed from an altitude of 30,000 feet or higher, where winds are known to be very strong and unpredictable, and would likely disperse them very unpredictably.
If the government was going to use chemicals to secretly control the population, it would be more effective to put them in our water and food supply, or if inhalation were necessary, to release chemicals from cars or buses.
Like all other conspiracy theories of this nature, the Chemtrail theory will eventually crash and burn (no pun), and go down in urban history as one of the largest and most elaborate internet hoaxes of all time.
There is simply no such thing as chemtrails in today’s world. It is amusing to watch people try and analyze “chemtrails” when they don’t even have a clue about airplanes, weather, ATC or aviation in general.
Let’s just assume for the sake of argument that the government does in fact mix viruses and toxic chemicals into jet fuel for the purpose of raining down on civilization. Why then do we only see these ‘chemtrails’ at high altitude? Why do planes not produce visible chemtrails on final for landing or on the ground taxiing, or during takeoff? I’ve never seen this and I’ve lived under an airport approach path for 16 years… Why have passengers onboard not noticed the chemicals being sprayed out of the wings of the aircraft during flight? I’ve taken plane rides many times in my life and I’ve never seen these chemicals being sprayed out of the wings of any aircraft.
I’ve heard some people argue that there are viruses mixed in with the fuel for the purpose of testing the population. I can debunk this in 3 seconds.
The heat of the burning fuel would kill any viruses instantly.

Conclusion
Some will argue that if I really believed chemtrails don’t exist, I would not take so much time trying to disprove them. In reality however, I simply hate to see so many people misled into believing something as false as chemtrails.
We must stop and realize that the sky is full of amazing and bizarre phenomena, such as rainbows, cirrus clouds, lightning, tornadoes, hurricanes, hail, the northern lights etc.
But as history has shown us time, after time again, that without understanding the underlying mechanisms of natural things that happen here on earth, humans always assume that fearsome monsters are responsible.

‘nuf said.

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CELESTIAL EMPORIUM (DISTINCTIONS!)

dragon1These ambiguities, redundances, and deficiences recall those attributed by Dr. Franz Kuhn to a certain Chinese encyclopedia entitled Celestial Emporium of Benevolent Knowledge. On those remote pages it is written that animals are divided into: (a) those that belong to the Emperor, (b) embalmed ones, (c) those that are trained, (d) suckling pigs, (e) mermaids, (f) fabulous ones, (g) stray dogs, (h) those that are included in this classification, (i) those that tremble as if they were mad, (j) innumerable ones, (k) those drawn with a very fine camel’s hair brush, (l) others, (m) those that have just broken a flower vase, (n) those that resemble flies from a distance.

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CELLPHONES

You are needlessly worrying about something that DOESN’T EXIST.

WORRY about M-I-C, Electoral FRAUD, Federal Reserve, Education, Health – and CELLPHONES.

http://Ws.ef.org/magazine/mag2007/aug2007_report_cellphone_radiation_01.htm

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CHAFF (& RADAR)


Modern US Navy RR-129 and RR-124 chaff countermeasures and containers. Note how the strips of the RR-129 chaff, bottom, are of different lengths, while those of the RR-124, top, are all the same length. The RR-124 is designed to prevent interference with civil ATC radar systems.

Definition

Chaff, originally called “Window” by the British, and Düppel by the Second World War era German Luftwaffe (from the Berlin suburb it was first found near), is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallised glass fibre or plastic, which either appears as a cluster of secondary targets on radar screens or swamps the screen with multiple returns.
Modern armed forces use chaff (in naval applications, for instance, using short-range SRBOC rockets) to distract radar-guided missiles from their targets. Most military aircraft and warships have chaff dispensing systems for self-defense. An intercontinental ballistic missile may release in its midcourse phase several independent warheads, a large number of decoys, and chaff.
It can also be used to signal distress by an aircraft when communications are not functional. This has the same effect as an SOS, and can be picked up on radar. It is done by dropping chaff every 2 minutes.

Second World War

Professor R.V. Jones
Professor Frederick Lindemann
Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Harris

The idea of using chaff developed independently in the UK and in Germany.
As far back as 1937, R. V. Jones had suggested that a piece of metal foil falling through the air might create radar echoes. In early 1942, a Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE) researcher named Joan Curran investigated the idea and came up with a scheme for dumping packets of aluminium strips from aircraft to generate a cloud of false echoes. From a practical point of view it was found the most effective version were strips of black paper backed with aluminium foil cut to strips exactly 27 centimetres by 2 centimetres and packed into bundles weighing one pound apiece. The Head of the TRE, A. P. Rowe, code-named the device as “Window”.
Meanwhile in Germany, similar research had led to the development of Düppel. Once the idea had been passed to the US, Fred Whipple developed a system (according to Harvard Gazette Archives) for dispensing strips for the USAAF, but it is not known if this was ever used.
The systems were all essentially identical in concept: small aluminium strips (or wires) cut to one-half of the target radar’s wavelength. When hit by the radar, such lengths of metal resonate and re-radiate the signal. Opposing defenses would find it almost impossible to pick out the “real” aircraft from the echoes from the chaff. Other radar-confusing techniques included “Mandrel”, “Piperack”, and “Jostle”.
However, unaware of the opposing air force’s knowledge of the chaff concept, planners felt that using it was even more dangerous than not, since, as soon as it was used, the enemy could easily duplicate it and use it against them. In particular, the British government’s leading scientific adviser, Professor Lindemann, balefully pointed out that if the RAF used it against the Germans, the Luftwaffe would quickly copy it and could launch a new Blitz. This caused concern in RAF Fighter Command and Anti-Aircraft Command, who managed to suppress the use of Window until July 1943. At this time, it was felt the new generation of centimetric radars available to Fighter Command would deal with any Luftwaffe response to RAF Bomber Command use.
Examination of the Würzburg radar equipment brought back to the UK during Operation Biting and subsequent reconnaissance revealed to the British that all German radars were operating in no more than three major frequency ranges, and thus were prone to jamming. “Bomber” Harris, Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) of RAF Bomber Command, finally got approval to use Window as part of Operation Gomorrah, the fire raids against Hamburg.

Fred Whipple

Sir Robert Watson-Watt

OPENING THE WINDOW

The US RRL organization learned about Window from the British, and put their own experts to work on how to best make use of it. A noted antenna expert, Dr. L.J. Chu, worked out the theory, and then Fred Whipple, an astronomer well-known in his field for his definitive work on comets, figured out how it should best be fabricated and used. Whipple, like many of the boffins pressed into war service, would retain fond memories of his military work and kept a prototype Window-cutting machine in his office for the rest of his career.
Window was being stockpiled in quantity, but there was still no commitment to its use. R.V. Jones kept lobbying for the go-ahead. On 23 June 1943, Churchill called a meeting of Chiefs of Staff to consider the question of Window. Jones made his case; Watson-Watt was still opposed, but Leigh-Mallory, in charge of Fighter Command, agreed that reducing the suffering of Bomber Command outweighed his concerns over the air defense of Britain. Churchill thought the matter over for a moment, and then called on his instinct for theatrical phrases: “Very well. Let us open the Window.”
Window went into operation in July 1943, during Operation GOMORRAH, the devastating raids on Hamburg. The Window strips were 30 centimeters long and 1.5 centimeters wide (12 by 0.6 inches) and were manually tossed out by crew members in packets containing 2,000 strips each. 46,000 packets were dropped. Window completely disrupted German air defenses. Night fighter radar operators reported ghostly British bombers approaching them at high speed and then disappearing abruptly, over and over again. Out of 700 bombers in the raid, only twelve were shot down.
Through most of the rest of the war, Window was dispensed by hand, though late in the conflict bombers were fitted with automatic dispensers. Bomber forces not only used Window for concealment, they also used it for decoying the defenses, dumping Window screens at a right angle to the actual direction of the main bomber attack, or even flying in circles around a target and dropping Window bundles to baffle the defenders.
In another one of the many ironies of the Wizard War, the Japanese had actually opened the Window in May, the month before Churchill’s decision, when they dropped strips of “giman-shi (deceiving paper)” to jam SCR-268 radars during a raid on Guadalcanal. The Japanese had discovered the same obvious trick, but the news failed to reach the Allied high command before they decided to let the cat out of the bag. To add to the irony, the Japanese never managed to obtain a real advantage from their giman-shi. One problem appears to have been the scarcity of aluminum, which meant they couldn’t produce enough giman-shi to make a real difference.


The first aircrew trained to use Window were 76 squadron. Twenty-four crews were briefed on how to drop the bundles of aluminised-paper strips (treated-paper was used to minimise the weight and maximise the time that the strips would remain in the air, prolonging the effect), one every minute through the flare chute, using a stopwatch to time them. The results were spectacular. The radar guided master searchlights wandered aimlessly across the sky. The AA guns fired randomly or not at all and the night fighters, their radar displays swamped with false echoes, utterly failed to find the bomber stream. A vast area of Hamburg was devastated with the loss of only 12 bombers. Squadrons quickly had special chutes fitted to their bombers to make the deployment even easier. Seeing this as a development that made it safer to go on ops, many crews got in as many trips as they could before the Germans found a countermeasure.
Although the metal strips puzzled the German civilians at first, the German scientists knew exactly what they were because they had developed Düppel themselves and refrained from using it for exactly the same reasons as Lindemann had pointed out to the British. Thus for over a year the curious situation arose where both sides of the conflict knew how to use chaff to jam the other sides radar, but refrained from doing so fearing that if they did so the other side would ‘learn the trick’ and use it against themselves.
The use of Window rendered the ground-controlled ‘Himmelbett’ (German for “canopy bed”) fighters of the Kammhuber Line unable to track their targets in the night sky and left radar-guided guns and spotlights useless. In response to this, a new tactic, called Wilde Sau, or ‘Wild Sow’, was developed by Oberst Hajo Herrmann to cope with the lack of accurate ground guidance, and led to the creation of three new fighter wings dedicated to these tactics, numbered JG 300, JG 301 and JG 302. Ground operators would radio-direct single seat fighters and night fighters to areas where the concentrations of chaff were greatest (which would indicate the source of the chaff), and allow the fighters to visually acquire their targets, often against the fires and searchlights below. A few of the single seat fighters used by these new wings had special installations of the FuG 350 Naxos radar detection gear to spot British bombers at night.

Kammhuber Line

A map of part of the Kammhuber Line stolen by a Belgian agent and passed-on to the British in 1942. The ‘belt’ and nightfighter ‘boxes’ are shown

The Kammhuber Line was the name given to the German night air defense system established in July 1940 by Colonel Josef Kammhuber.
The first version of the Line consisted of a series of radar stations with overlapping coverage, layered three deep from Denmark to the middle of France, each covering a zone about 32 km long (north-south) and 20 km wide (east-west). Each control centre was known as a Himmelbett zone, consisting of a Freya radar with a range of about 100 km, a “master searchlight” directed by the radar, and a number of manually directed searchlights spread through the cell. Each cell was also assigned one primary and one backup night fighter. The fighter used was usually a Dornier Do 17, Junkers Ju 88 or Messerschmitt Bf 110. This technique of Ground-controlled interception (GCI) was preceded by the use of single-engined non-radar equipped BF 109s guided-onto the attacking bombers by the illumination of searchlights, termed; Helle Nachtjagd – illuminated night fighting.
RAF bombers flying into Germany or France would have to cross the line at some point, and the Freya radar operators would direct the master searchlight to illuminate the plane. Once this had happened other manually-controlled searchlights would also pick up the plane, and the night fighters would be directed to intercept the illuminated bomber. Demands by the Bürgermeisters in Germany led to the recall of the searchlights to the major cities which undermined this system.
Later versions of the Himmelbett added two Würzburg radars, with a range of about 30 km. Unlike the early-warning Freya, Würzburg’s were accurate (and complex) tracking radars. One would be locked onto the night fighter as soon as it entered the cell and as soon as the Freya picked up a target the second Würzburg would lock onto it. All position reports were sent to the Himmelbett control centre thereby allowing controllers in the Himmelbett centre to get continual readings of the positions of both planes.
A Jägerleitoffizier would direct the German night-fighter to a visual interception with the RAF bomber using radio. Operations were manually coordinated using an “Auswertetisch” (the precursor of a “Seeburg” table).

To aid interception a number of the night fighters were fitted with a short-range infrared device known as Spanner but these proved almost useless. Later the short-range Lichtenstein radar was added to the aircraft, allowing them to detect aircraft once the operators had directed them into the area, making searchlights largely redundant.
The battle stations were known as “Kammhuber’s opera houses” and procedures developed in 1942 were used until the end of the war.

KAMMHUBER LINE / ADVANCED GERMAN GROUND RADARS

By the time the British dropped paratroopers on Bruneval, the Germans had a well-organized air defense system to protect the Reich from Allied air attacks. As mentioned, work on this network began in the summer of 1940, under the direction of Colonel Josef Kammhuber, who would rise through the ranks to major general. When Allied intelligence found out who was the mastermind behind the network, they called it the “Kammhuber Line”, and the name stuck.
When Kammhuber began his task, the tools at his disposal included the old visual observer network, sound location gear, searchlights, and two types of radars — Freya and Würzburg. The sound location gear was almost useless and quickly abandoned. Freyas could be used to direct a fighter to the vicinity of a bomber, but since Luftwaffe night fighters didn’t have AI at the outset, they were guided to the final attack using searchlights directed by Würzburgs. This was obviously a clumsy scheme and the Germans put great effort into developing an AI, discussed below.
Another problem was that the range of the Würzburg was inadequate. The solution was simple: Telefunken simply suggested that they increase the size of the Würzburg dish from 3 meters (10 feet) to 7.5 meters (24 feet 7 inches) to increase antenna gain. The rest of the radar was left generally unchanged, though the PRF was cut in half from 3,750 Hz to 1,875 Hz to adjust to the longer range.
The larger dish was tested and proved very effective, and so the “Würzburg Riese (Giant Würzburg)”, mentioned earlier, was promptly put into production. The original Würzburg antenna was a simple solid dish, but the Würzburg Riese had an unusual lattice framework structure. The dish was built by the Zeppelin company, and its construction reflected techniques used to build airships. About 1,500 Würzburg Riese radars were built, with the type going into operational service in 1941. There was also a variant of the Würzburg Riese known as the “Gustav”, an odd hybrid that had both Wuerzburg and Freya electronics, with a handful built and going into service in 1944.
The original Würzburg remained in service with anti-aircraft gun batteries. However, Telefunken felt they could improve on the design, and designed a new set, named “Mannheim”, that operated on the same 50 cm (600 MHz) band but had greater accuracy. Some late models even had automatic tracking. Mannheim went into service in mid-1943, and about 400 were built. Since the appearance of Mannheim was similar, though not identical, to Würzburg, it was often simply referred to as “Würzburg”. A handful of “Mannheim Riese” sets were built late in the war to support anti-aircraft missile research, with an oversized antenna like that of the Würzburg Riese, but the Mannheim Riese didn’t go into production.
It is unclear if the Kriegsmarine ever used either Würzburg or Mannheim. The interservice rivalries of the Reich would argue against it, but some sources claim that Würzburgs were used at coastal sites, possibly including naval installations. In any case, it does appear that the GEMA developed a gun-laying radar named “Flakleit g” for the Kriegsmarine, which was based on Seetakt and used the same 80 cm (375 MHz) band. Photographs show the Flakleit g to have some similarities to the US SCR-268 set, with a horizontally oriented and a vertically oriented antenna. It is tempting to think it used both vertical and horizontal lobe-switching to accurately track targets, but information on this radar is very hard to find and specifics are unclear.
From such beginnings, and after some trial and error to find the best procedures and tactics, the Kammhuber Line grew until in maturity it stretched in an arc from northern France, across the Low Countries, and into northern Germany, shielding the Reich from attacks from Britain. The line was divided into defensive cells, or “boxes”, each 43 kilometers wide by 34 kilometers deep (27 by 21 miles). Each box contained a Freya and two Würzburg-Riese radars. The box was known as a “Himmelbett (Four-Poster Bed)”.
The British realized that Freya was an early warning radar, and that Würzburg-Riese was used for aircraft tracking. Some British officials believed the second Würzburg-Riese was a backup, but R.V. Jones knew that the Germans couldn’t afford that level of redundancy. He guessed correctly that one Würzburg-Riese was used to track intruding Allied bomber formations, while the other was used to track Luftwaffe interceptors.
The three radars fed fortresslike command posts that were conceptually similar to British GCI stations. However, the German operators lacked PPI displays, and instead worked from staggered rows of seats in front of a huge screen with a map of the battle area. The layout resembled that of a movie theater with bleacher seats, and the command posts were called “Kammhuber-Kinos (Kammhuber’s Cinemas)” by German night fighter pilots. Operators in the lower bleacher seats shone lights on the screen to track the movements of aircraft. Blue lights meant friendly interceptors, red lights meant hostile bombers. Other operators standing behind the screen, trained in mirror writing, used marker pens to provide updates on the battle. Fighter controllers in the top seats kept the night-fighter crews up to date over radio. Smaller screens in “balconies” on either side of the “theater” provided updates for what was happening in the neighboring air-defense boxes.
Night fighters would stand by, flying orbits around a light/radio beacon, until a fighter controller got in touch with one and talked it to the vicinity of the target. The night fighter would then turn on its AI, acquire the target, and perform the attack. Although almost comically laborious by modern standards, by the standards of the time it was very ingenious. It was highly effective and a great improvement over the disjoint and primitive air-defense network that Kammhuber had at the outset.
The Kammhuber Line was continuously upgraded throughout its existence. The Würzburg-Riese was one improvement, and GEMA had also come up with two derivatives of Freya that had greater range and much better accuracy. One was named “Mammut (Mammoth)”, which essentially consisted of 16 Freyas, linked together in a giant array with 192 dipoles, 30 meters across and 10 meters high (98 by 33 feet). It was mounted on four vertical structural beams, which led British intelligence to call it “Hoarding” (British for the Yank term “Billboard”). About 20 were built, with the first going into service in 1942. Mammut was a fixed-position radar, but it used electronic steering to scan over a field of view of 100 degrees. In yet another example of the parallel nature of radar discovery, the Germans independently developed phased arrays while the Americans were working on the same technology, and in fact Mammut was the first phased-array radar to go into production. Two Mammuts were often built back-to-back to give bidirectional coverage. Mammut’s operating specifications were similar to that of Freya, with the same 2.4 meter (125 MHz) Freya band, 3 microsecond pulse width, and 500 Hz PRF. However, Mammut had a much higher peak power of 200 kW, giving it a range of about 320 kilometers (200 miles). It used horizontal lobe switching to obtain positional accuracy of about half a degree in the horizontal plane.

Mammut radar

Mammut had no real ability to determine altitude, since it was designed as a long-range warning radar to identify groups of intruders. Getting a better fix on the groups once they were detected was the business of the second derivative of Freya, named “Wassermann (Waterman)”. There were a number of different versions of Wassermann, but they all essentially amounted to eight or more Freyas mounted vertically on a steerable tower 60 meters (190 feet) high. About 150 were built, with the first going into operation in 1942.
Wassermann used electronic beam steering and lobe switching to achieve a vertical resolution of about 0.75 degree in the middle of its field of view, and a horizontal resolution of about 0.25 degree. Again, signal parameters were the same as Freya’s, except that Wassermann produced a peak power of 100kW and had a range of about 240 kilometers (150 miles). One variant, the “Wassermann S (Schwer / Heavy)”, had the array mounted around a tall cylinder, and so the British named the radar “Chimney”, applying the same name to the other variants of Wassermann.

Wasserman/Chimney radar

Both Mammut and Wassermann were excellent radars and became the backbone of the German early warning network. They proved surprisingly difficult to knock out, though eventually Allied strike fighters found that a barrage of rockets could do the job.
The Germans also operated a passive signals intercept operation, known as the “Y-Dienst (Y-Service)”, which used directional antennas and triangulation to locate Allied bomber formations from their radio emissions. The Y-Dienst had the advantage of being impossible to jam, and was an important element of the air-defense system.
Other German radars saw limited or selective service with the air-defense system. One was known as “Jagdschloss (Hunting Lodge)”, which was a wide-area radar produced by Siemens from development work conducted by GEMA. About 80 were built, with the first in service by early 1944.
Jagdschloss was used for tracking bomber formations over long ranges. The radar featured 18 dipoles mounted on a rotating horizontal structural beam 20 meters (66 meters) wide to generate a narrow radar beam in the shape of a vertical fan, with good horizontal resolution but little or no altitude determination capability. Jagdschloss operated at a slightly higher band than Freya, ranging from 2.3 meters to 1.8 meters (129 to 165 MHz); had a pulse length of a microsecond, three times better than Freya; a PRF of 500 Hz; and a peak power of 150 kW.
Jagdschloss was the first German production set with a PPI, transmitting PPI information directly to remote command headquarters over dedicated landlines, or directional 50 cm (600 MHz) radio links.
The Germans also developed an ingenious passive radar system named “Klein-Heidelberg”, probably developed by Telefunken considering the name, that was used only in coastal regions along the North Sea and English Channel. It worked by sensing Chain Home emissions, with one small antenna focused on a CH station to obtain the original radar pulse, and a larger steerable passive antenna, based on the Wassermann-S, that picked up CH reflections on bomber formations.
The time delay between the original and reflected CH signals defined an ellipse on a map, with the CH and Klein-Heidelberg stations at the focal points, that plotted the possible locations of bomber formations. The steerable antenna pinned down the actual location along the ellipse with accuracy adequate for an early-warning system. As with the Y-Dienst, it was effectively impossible to jam. It could only have worked with a floodlight radar like CH, as the Klein-Heidelberg wouldn’t pick up the output beam of a steerable or rotating radar set most of the time.
As an odd footnote to German radar development, late in the war the Germans actually introduced a radar named the “Elefant-Rüssel”, a floodlight system that was inspired by the British Chain Home longwave stations. It was built by the German Postal Authority with some help from Telefunken.
“Elefant (Elephant)” was the transmitter, sending a flood of radio energy over a 120 degree arc on the same 15 to 10 meter (20 to 30 MHz) band as CH. “Rüssel (Elephant’s Trunk)” was the receiver, which was located a kilometer away and used a steerable antenna to determine the direction of the echo. The Elefant-Rüssel was not used as part of the air-defense system. Some stations were set up on coastlines to track, inaccurately, V-2 rocket flights.
Elefant-Rüssel was not as capable as Freya. In fact, it was not as capable as Chain Home. It is difficult to figure out in hindsight what the point of it was, and the name “White Elephant” seems like it might have been more appropriate. It may have been a pet project of the Reich’s Postal Authority that nobody ever got around to killing off.
The Germans did not set up a comprehensive defense network in the East comparable to the Kammhuber Line. The Soviets were not into strategic bombing, with the primary mission of the Red Air Force being battlefield support of the troops — and the battlefront tended to shift, sometimes drastically, making investments into large fixed-site installations a poor use of resources.
The Germans adapted to the more fluid air-defense environment by being flexible. After the German advance into the USSR bogged down in late 1941, they set up a few Freyas at fixed sites, and then mounted the Himmelbett radar system on trains, shuttling them to where needed. They even mounted such a system on a cargo ship, and operated it in the Baltic beginning in early 1944 and up to the end of the war.

GERMAN AIRBORNE RADARS & IFF

Early on Luftwaffe night fighters had a desperate need for an AI radar, which was finally supplied by a Telefunken-built radar named “Lichtenstein”, codenamed “Emil-Emil”.
The first Lichtenstein prototype was flying by the summer of 1941, and went into service as the “Lichtenstein B/C” in the spring of 1942. Lichtenstein B/C used an array of four cross-shaped antennas mounted on the nose of a night fighter. The radar operated at 50 cm (600 MHz), with a wide beam that provided a good field of view, a somewhat short maximum range of no more than 4 kilometers (2.5 miles), and an acceptable minimum range of 200 meters (660 feet). It used conical scanning, featuring a rotating element in the antenna electronic systems to spin the beam around. It was Carl Runge’s last contribution to the German war effort, since personal clashes eventually forced him out of Telefunken.
Lichtenstein B/C was mounted on the Luftwaffe’s primary night-fighter, the Messerschmitt Me-110 twin-engine fighter, as well as on night-fighter variants of the Junkers Ju-88 bomber. The larger and more powerful Ju-88 was a better night fighter than the Me-110, but Ju-88s were used for many roles, and there were never enough of them go around. Pilots were initially unhappy with the radar since the antenna arrays cut into the performance of their machines, but soon found out that it was far more effective than chasing after bombers illuminated by searchlights.

Lichtenstein B/C radar on Ju-88

RAF listening posts heard references between fighters and ground controllers about Emil-Emil, though they didn’t know what it was. After an electronic intelligence station in Britain picked up a signal from what seemed to be a German AI, a Vickers Wellington bomber was fitted with a receiver set to the appropriate frequency range and sent over Germany on a ferret mission in early December 1942. The mission worked a little too well, since the bomber was chewed up by a Ju-88 night fighter and almost didn’t make it back home.

Dornier 17

The Allies actually got their hands on a complete Lichtenstein B/C set on 9 May 1943, when a Ju-88 night fighter landed in Scotland, the crew having decided to defect. However, by this time, it was on the threshold of becoming old news. The Germans were working on an improved version of Lichtenstein, the “SN-2”, which provided greater range than Lichtenstein B/C.
The range increase was to be obtained by going to longer wavelengths, which turned out to be in the range of 4.1 to 3.7 meters (73.2 to 81.1 MHz), which were easier to generate at higher power levels. It also produced a wider beam, making it easier to spot intruders. This had been the crippling flaw of British longwave AI radars, since a wide beam led to too much ground clutter at low altitudes to be useful, but since RAF night bombers generally operated at high altitudes, the wide beam was a benefit to the Luftwaffe. As an unintended benefit, the new band also successfully camouflaged the new Lichtenstein from the Allies for several months, since the lower frequencies were in the Freya band and Allied ferrets didn’t realize that something else was there.

Lichtenstein SN-2 radar on Bf-110

Development of a radar-based air-defense network led the Germans to the problem of IFF, just as it had the British, and IFF proved even more troublesome for the Germans. An effective IFF system depends on standardization, and since the Nazi leadership’s technology policies were inconsistent and scatterbrained, IFF suffered accordingly.
At first, the Luftwaffe used a modified version of the Y-Geraet blind bombing system known as “Y-Verfahren” for fighter direction. The return signal that gave range though phase shift was transmitted for 20 seconds out of every minute by the aircraft’s radio, an idea consciously lifted from the British Pip Squeak scheme. Y-Verfahren basically put the burden of IFF on the ground station, but had the advantages of giving the range to the fighter. It also provided a navigation beam to get the night fighter back home in the dark and foul weather, a task which could be as dangerous as taking on an armed bomber.
However, like Pip Squeak, Y-Verfahren suffered from the fact that it was difficult to integrate with the radar network, and so the Germans worked in parallel on two more sophisticated IFF schemes:
GEMA had proposed an IFF named “Erstling (Firstborn)” in late 1938, with the Luftwaffe ordering several thousand about a year later. Erstling responded to Freya signals at 2.4 meters (125 MHz).
Telefunken was working on their own IFF by that time, which the German Air Ministry ordered into production in early 1941 as “Zwilling (Twin)”. Zwilling responded to Würzburg signals at 50 cm (600 MHz).
It is difficult to say that these were competing efforts so much as they were mutually indifferent. Wolfgang Martini protested the notion of fielding two different IFF systems, each of which only gave half the solution. In fact, Zwilling wasn’t even half the solution, since it proved unworkable in practice. Thousands were built, but many of them ended up being cannibalized for parts to build Erstlings. An improved “Zwilling J1” was built, but the better solution was to make Erstling compatible with Würzburg, or as it worked out, make Würzburg compatible with Erstling by the straightforward measure of tacking a 2.4 meter (125 MHz) interrogation system onto a Würzburg dish. The interrogator was named “Kuckuck (Cuckoo)”, with the scheme first introduced in the summer of 1942.
German IFF still didn’t get fully on track. The Allies were quick to figure out ways to interfere with it, and German pilots feared, correctly, that the enemy would also develop devices to home in on it. The Germans never even developed an IFF interrogator that could be carried on an aircraft, which hobbled the night-fighter crews. German engineers continued to work on IFF through the rest of the war, but never fielded an effective system.
The Germans also built an ASV radar, named “Hohentweil”. It was designed by the Lorenz company, which hadn’t given up on radar after losing the gun-laying radar contract to Telefunken’s Würzburg. Hohentweil operated at a wavelength of 50 cm (600 MHz), and featured various arrangements of cluttered dipole arrays, mounted on the nose of an ocean patrol aircraft, such as the Focke-Wulf FW-200 Kondor or the Junkers Ju-188. Hohentweil was an excellent set. It could spot a merchantman at a range of 80 kilometers (50 miles) and could pick up a submarine periscope at six kilometers (3.75 miles). Like the British ASV.II, it could perform searches by scanning to the sides, and then pinpoint a target in the forward direction using lobe switching. A version of Hohentweil was built for U-boats as well, but by the time it was available U-boat crews were so jumpy and intimidated that they didn’t want to use it, since they feared that the Allies might home in on it.

THE BRITISH BEGIN COUNTERMEASURES

Hamburg aftermath

By March 1942, the Kammhuber Line was beginning to seriously bloody the night raiders. R.V. Jones knew that disrupting German radars would blind the Kammhuber Line, and he knew just how to do it. As far back as 1937, he had suggested that a piece of metal foil falling through the air might create radar echoes. In early 1942, a TRE researcher named Joan Curran, the only woman among the boffins, had investigated the idea and come up with a scheme for dumping packets of aluminum strips from aircraft to generate a cloud of false echoes. The strips were to be cut to a half wavelength of the operating frequency of the radar to be jammed, though later quarter-wavelength strips were used as well. Tests against centimetric AI.VII and AI.VIII radar showed it to be highly effective. The scheme was codenamed “Window”.
Although R.V. Jones wanted to use Window right away, he was overruled. Lord Cherwell, Watson-Watt, and RAF Fighter Command opposed the use of Window, since they believed that once Window was used, the Germans would immediately learn the trick and use it on raids over the British Isles in turn.
In reality, the trick was much too obvious. Like so many other inventions in the Wizard War, the British hadn’t been the only ones to think of it. The Germans also performed tests in 1942 on using foil strips to jam radar, calling the scheme “Düppel”. German leadership proved every bit as nervous about the idea as their British counterparts. When Hermann Goering heard about the tests, he ordered them to be stopped immediately and reports on the experiment suppressed. Goering had greater reason for fear than the British: by this time, Allied offensive bombing capabilities clearly outstripped the German ability to retaliate in kind, and in fact the imbalance would only get worse. Düppel clearly would hurt the Reich far more than it would hurt the British.
The British used other countermeasures and kept Window in reserve. One of the simplest countermeasures was to simply increase the size of the attacking formations, up to the size of the “thousand bomber raids” conducted by Bomber Command beginning in May 1942. This overwhelmed the defenses, providing far more targets than a Himmelbett cell could tackle. However, it also created a “target rich environment”, and Luftwaffe night-fighter pilots eventually adjusted by simply having ground control direct them into the bomber stream, where they hunted targets on their own. The tactic was known as “Zahme Sau (Tame Boar)”, and as it placed more load on a night fighter’s AI system, it led to the effort to develop the improved Lichtenstein SN-2 AI. Kammhuber protested the use of Zahme Sau, insisting that he could compensate if given more resources, but he was ignored.
Simple numbers were not a very good defense against the Luftwaffe. In the summer of 1942, the RAF introduced a broadband radar jamming system named “Mandrel”, designed by Robert Cockburn’s countermeasures group at the TRE, that blinded Freya, Wassermann, and Mammut early-warning radars by throwing out radio noise on the Freya band. Mandrel was originally installed on fighters that escorted bomber formations to their targets. When Mandrel was installed on RAF bombers beginning in December 1942, RAF bomber losses fell substantially.
The Germans adapted by retuning some Freya systems from 2.4 meters (125 MHz) to 2.78 meters (107.9 MHz). The British responded in turn by modifying Mandrel to cover both frequencies, and the race between radar and jammer was on, with the British developing many variants of Mandrel.
The British also developed a jammer named “Shiver” to disrupt Würzburg, though Würzburg’s tight beam made this a much more difficult task, leading to an improved jammer named “Carpet” that could be tuned to various frequencies in the Wuerzburg band. While jamming had generally been done to that time using sine-wave signals, Cockburn had concluded that using random “white noise” signals was a much better option. It was much harder to compensate for, and it could be misinterpreted by victims as a defect in their own gear or natural interference.
White noise generators were improvised from what was available. Gas-filled tubes that ionized at specific voltages were used in voltage regulators at the time, and it turned out that they produced a nice noisy output if filter capacitors were removed. Photomultiplier tubes, normally used to amplify faint light signals, also produced a noisy “dark current”. Both these devices were used as noise generators until purpose-built gas tubes were introduced.
A formation of 20 bombers, each with a Carpet  jammer, could blind Würzburgs and Mannheims. Unfortunately, a bomber that radiated a continuous jamming signal also announced its presence to enemy fighters. The British came up with a new, more intelligent jammer system named “Carpet II”, which was able to scan through the Würzburg frequency range, identify a frequency in use, jam it for 30 seconds, and then move on. The jammer did not stay on frequency long enough to allow a fighter to home in on it, and with enough bombers, jamming coverage was effectively continuous. The concept of jumping frequencies, known as “frequency agility”, would became more important in the following decades.

The effect of "window" upon a Giant Wuerzburg display screen

Still another jammer, “Airborne Grocer”, was developed to jam Lichtenstein 50 cm (600 MHz) transmissions. They also designed a “Ground Grocer” counterpart, but it operated from long range and simply didn’t have the power to be effective.
Jamming radars by dumping noise into them was a crude trick. A more elegant approach was to deceive or “spoof” them, or trick them into seeing things that weren’t really there. Like many of the weapons of the Wizard War, spoofing was more or less invented by accident. In July 1941, British technicians were calibrating a Chain Home radar when an aircraft transmitted Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) signals into the radar at relatively high power by accident. To the technicians, the aircraft looked like a large number of fighters approaching, and the British realized that such a technique might be used to confuse German Freya radars.
Cockburn’s team developed a device named “Moonshine” to spoof Freya, and tests in March 1942 against Chain Home stations demonstrated its effectiveness. Moonshine was a “pulse repeater”. It listened for a pulse from a radar transmitter, and then fired back a spread-out pulse on the same frequency that fooled the radar receiver into “seeing” a reflection that appeared to be from a huge formation of bombers.
Moonshine transmitters were installed in twenty obsolescent Boulton-Paul Defiant two-seat fighters beginning in the spring of 1942. Moonshine went into operation that summer, with the Defiants providing a diversion for the USAAF’s first raid on Europe, against Rouen, France, on 17 August. Moonshine proved valuable at first, but it was only used for a few months since the Germans gradually got wise to it and recognized the spoofing for what it was. It was then set aside to be used on special occasions when the Germans weren’t expecting it.
The British also attempted to jam or spoof communications channels between night fighter and their ground controllers. In December 1942, along with Mandrel, the British introduced a radio jammer named “Tinsel”, which used microphones placed in the engine nacelles of a bomber to broadcast loud audio noise over Luftwaffe communications links.
Improved radio jamming systems were introduced in 1943. “Ground Cigar” went into operation in July, followed by “Airborne Cigar” in August, and then “Corona” in October. Corona was a full-fledged spoofing operation, with German-speaking British “controllers” breaking in on German ground-controller channels and trying to confuse night fighter pilots. At first, the British “controllers” were given away by obvious accents, but they refined their skills, and there were occasions where Luftwaffe pilots sat through arguments between two controllers, each insisting that he or she was the German and that the other was the Briton.
The RAF also configured aircraft as dedicated electronics warfare aircraft. Boeing B-17G Flying Fortresses, known in RAF service as Fortress IIIs, were configured with H2S, jammers, and warning systems and used to protect bomber streams.
British intelligence soon discovered the nature of the Kammhuber Line and started studying ways to defeat it. At the time RAF Bomber Command sent in their planes one at a time to force the defenses to be spread as far apart as possible, meaning that any one aircraft would have to deal with little concentrated flak. This also meant the Himmelbett centres were only dealing with perhaps one or two planes at a time, making their job much easier.
At the urging of R.V. Jones, Bomber Command reorganized their attacks into streams of bombers, carefully positioned so the stream would fly down the middle of a cell. Data provided to the British scientists allowed them to calculate that the bomber stream would overwhelm the six potential interceptions per hour that the German “Tame Boar” (Zahme Sau) night fighters could manage in a Himmelbett zone. It was then a matter of calculating the statistical loss from collisions against the statistical loss from night fighters to calculate how close the bombers should fly to minimise RAF losses. The introduction of Gee allowed the RAF bombers to fly by a common route and at the same speed to and from the target, each aircraft being allotted a height band and a time slot in a bomber stream to minimize the risk of collision. The first use of the bomber stream was the first 1,000 bomber raid against Cologne on the night of 30/31 May 1942. This tactic was extremely effective, leading to fighting between Kammhuber and Erhard Milch, his boss.

A Lancaster within the bomber stream dropping chaff – the crescent-shaped white cloud on the left of the picture

Dresden in 1945

Although the success rate of the Line dropped, the network of radars and plotting stations continued to prove their worth. Now when a raid started, night fighters from any base within range would be directed into the stream, where it was hoped they would be able to find aircraft with their radar. At the same time a massive building program started to add hundreds of Würzburgs to the system, although the infrastructure needed was extensive. The boxes were initially the radius of the Würzburg radars, about 22 miles but more powerful radar later on made the boxes up to 100 miles across. Eventually, the line of boxes would be several deep, especially around larger towns and the Ruhr valley. Once again the system started to score increasing successes against the British raids.


The British were ready for this development and as soon as the rates started to improve – for the Germans – they added ‘windowing’ cover. By dropping chaff from a number of “lead” bombers, the German radar operators saw what appeared to be a stream entering their box, each packet of chaff appearing to be a bomber on their displays. Night fighters would then be sent to attack this stream, only to find empty space. Just as the fighters reached the chaff stream, the “real” stream would appear hundreds of miles away, too far to be attacked. The first time this was used was during the firestorm attack on Hamburg, (Operation Gomorrah) and proved spectacularly effective. The German radar operators eventually learned to spot the lead bombers at the edge of the windowing, making it less effective.
A lesser-known fact is that the Luftwaffe used this technology just six weeks after the above-mentioned Hamburg raid. The German strips were cut into 80 centimetre by 1.9 centimetre lengths and first dropped during a raid on 7-8 October 1943. In a series of raids in 1943, and the ‘mini-blitz’ of Operation Steinbock between February and May 1944, Düppel allowed German bombers to once again attempt to operate over London. Although theoretically effective, the small number of bombers, notably in relation to the RAF’s now-large night fighter force, doomed the effort from the start. The British fighters were able to go aloft in large numbers and often found the German bombers in spite of their Düppel.

B-24 bomb strike on a German Rail yard

COUNTERMEASURE VERSUS COUNTERMEASURE

For a time after the introduction of Window, RAF Bomber Command conducted night raids over Germany with relative impunity. Field Marshal Erhard Milch, in charge of German aircraft procurement, commented: “I am beginning to think that we are sitting on a limb, and the British are sawing that limb off.”
Hermann Goering was disgusted. “In the field of radar they must have the world’s greatest genius. They have the geniuses and we have the nincompoops … The British would have never dared use the metal foil here if they had not worked out 100% what the antidote it. I hate the rogues like the plague, but in one respect I’m obliged to take off my cap to them. After the war’s over, I’m going to buy myself a British radio set, as a token of my regard for their high-frequency work.”
Goering’s comments about Germany’s radar “nincompoops” were revealing, since it was something of a self-fulfilling judgement. Allied leadership clearly gave greater priority and respect to their technical resources than their German counterparts, who seemed to regard their own boffins as a resource that would provide miracles spontaneously, to be browbeaten when they failed. In fact, many of their radars were ingenious, well-designed, and highly capable given the limitations of longwave systems. In one of the many illuminating ironies of the story, most German microwave work had been cancelled by the authorities just before the capture of the Rotterdam Geraet earlier in the year.
Goering was also dead wrong about the British having countermeasures against Window. The only actual countermeasure they had was the fact that they and the Americans had large numbers of heavy long-range bombers and the Germans did not, making the use of Window a good gamble.
The Germans would in fact use Düppel themselves, beginning in October 1943 and particularly during the “Baby Blitz” on England in January 1944, but Luftwaffe bomber formations were too small to achieve the densities of Düppel needed to be effective. The British decision to open the Window proved completely justified by later events.
On reading a report about the Rotterdam Geraet, Goering later commented: “We must admit that in this sphere, the British and Americans are far ahead of us. I expected them to be advanced, but frankly I never expected them to get so far ahead. I did hope that even if we were behind, we could at least be in the same race!” Kammhuber, who had antagonized his superiors with his single-minded focus on his own agenda as the ultimate priority of all activities of the Reich, would be fired in mid-September after several failures to adequately deal with RAF raids, with General Josef “Beppo” Schmid taking his place as commander of night defense operations.
By late spring 1943, the RAF and USAAF were dumping hundreds of tonnes of Window a month, but the Germans were beginning to recover. They would never defeat it completely, but they were gradually able to take back some ground they had lost. In fact, RAF night bomber losses continued at a high rate, which leads to the ugly question of just how bad they would have been if the Allies hadn’t developed countermeasures.


The German defense was particularly assisted by a stroke of luck. By coincidence, the improved Lichtenstein SN-2 radar began to go into service in July 1943, at about the same time that the Allies started using Window. SN-2 turned out to be the right thing at the right time, since at the time the Allies were using Window cut to lengths appropriate to shorter wavelengths, and the SN-2 could cut through the interference. Although the British were jamming Freyas and other early-warning radars, ground controllers could still use the unjammable Y-Dienst direction-finding system to direct night fighters into bomber streams, where they could use SN-2 to hunt down targets. The weak link in the Zahme Sau scheme was the ground controller communications channel, and so the Allies stepped up their efforts to jam or spoof the communications.
SN-2 was sometimes fitted to night fighters along with the older Lichtenstein B/C sets, which provided higher resolution when jamming could be overcome. In the late stages of the war, the Germans would also deploy an improved longwave AI named “Neptun”, derived from a simple tail warning radar of the same name, and which apparently was originally designed as an ASV. The Neptun AI operated over a relatively wide range of frequencies and had a maximum range of up to five kilometers (three miles) and a minimum range of a hundred meters (330 feet), but it was too little and too late.
The Luftwaffe also used another tactic to complement Zahme Sau, known as “Wilde Sau (Wild Sow)”, in which Luftwaffe day fighters conducted night attacks using the flames of the burning cities to spotlight Allied bombers. Wilde Sau proved effective, but day fighters, not having been designed for night operations, suffered from landing accidents and a simple, dangerous tendency to get lost at night.
Some of the German countermeasures were clever. The Germans built a system named “Flammen (Flames)”, that could home in on IFF Mark III signals, a trick that was helped along by the fact that some RAF crews superstitiously thought that their IFF could jam Wuerzburg and so left it on all the time. RAF losses climbed until December, until the Allies got wise to the trick and ordered pilots to turn off their IFF over hostile territory. In turn, the British would hunt Luftwaffe bombers using German IFF during the Baby Blitz. Similarly, when the RAF deployed a tail warning radar named “Monica” on their bombers in June 1943 as a means of warning the pilot that an attacker was on his tail, the Germans quickly invented a device named “Flensburg” to home in on Monica emissions. This was particularly ironic, since Monica had been so prone to false alarms due to other bombers in the stream that it was of little use in the first place.
While the Germans tried to deal with Allied countermeasures, they were also working on centimetric radar, using the Rotterdam-Geraet they had captured early in 1943. They had quickly determined that the device operated at centimetric wavelengths, and Professor Leo Brandt of Telefunken was assigned to reverse-engineer the device. The Telefunken factory in Berlin was bombed on 1 March 1943 and the device was destroyed, but that same night a Halifax bomber was shot down over the Netherlands, providing a replacement. This time, the device was taken to a flak tower, one of the huge reinforced concrete “castles” used to protect anti-aircraft batteries.
As it turned out, the Germans did not have time to deploy centimetric radar themselves. They were so desperate for components that the wreckage of Allied bombers was scavenged for magnetron parts. 25 “Berlin” 10 cm (3 GHz) AI sets were built late in the war, but only a few were ever fitted to night fighters and they saw little or no action. The improved “Bremen” variant never got beyond a single prototype. A microwave ground-based search radar named “Marbach” was developed and saw some use near the end of the war. Marbach had a peak power of 20 kW, a pulse period of 0.6 microseconds, a PRF of 500 hertz, and a maximum range of about 50 kilometers (31 miles). A targeting radar named “Kulmbach”, with similar specifications but a tighter beam and half the range, was also built. The two radars were linked to form the “Egerland” fire-control system, but only two Egerlands were built before Germany’s surrender.
However, the Germans were able to develop effective countermeasures against centimetric radar, and in fact the Germans were so focused on countermeasures that radar development was necessarily a lower priority. Telefunken built a simple detector named “Naxos” that could pick up 10 cm (3 GHz) H2S transmissions, and a more sophisticated detector named “Korfu” with greater range and accuracy. Korfu saw little use, but Naxos saw widespread service.
There were two different types of Naxos. “Naxos Z” was developed for night fighters and mounted in a blister on top of the fighter’s canopy. It could detect an RAF bomber from much longer range than Flensburg Monica-homing system. Another version of Naxos, “Naxos U”, was provided to U-boats to allow them to detect 10 cm (3 GHz ASV), though by that time the U-boats were entirely on the defensive and it did them only a little good. Naxos was further hobbled by the fact that it proved very fragile in field conditions, and working out the bugs ended up being troublesome.
Although the kind of technical improvisation by the bottom ranks that in particular characterized the US military was not encouraged by the strictly hierarchical German military, it did happen. A captain and a sergeant in the air-defense system came up with the bright idea of hooking up a Naxos to a Würzburg dish system, resulting in “Naxburg”. Naxburg had a directional accuracy of about 1 degree and range limited only by line of sight. It became an important addition to the Y-Dienst signals intelligence network.
The British continued to develop countermeasures of their own. RAF bombers were equipped with primitive “passive” radar-warning receivers to warn them they were being hunted by night fighters. The first was “Boozer”, introduced in 1943, which used a tail-mounted antenna to pick up Lichtenstein transmissions and turn on a warning light to alert a bomber pilot. Boozer did not generate emissions to give away the bomber, but it was also not very discriminating and gave continuous false alarms. Bomber crews soon learned to turn it off and ignore it.
They also fought back directly. The RAF equipped Mosquito night intruders with a device called “Serrate” to allow them to track down German night fighters from their Lichtenstein B/C and SN-2 radar emissions, and also fitted Mosquitoes with a device named “Perfectos” that tracked German IFF. The secrets of Lichtenstein SN-2 and German IFF had been dropped into the hands of the Allies in July 1944, when the pilot of a Ju-88 night fighter flew the wrong way against a landing beacon and landed in the UK by accident.
Countermeasures led to more countermeasures. The Germans built a tail-warning version of Naxos, known as “Naxos ZR”, to warn their night fighters that they were being tracked by centimetric radar. The Luftwaffe went to great lengths to hunt down the hated Mosquitoes, though with limited success. With the Reich crumbling, the Germans were increasingly unable to even find fuel to keep their fighters flying.
As the Luftwaffe began to run out of steam, the Germans relied more and more heavily on anti-aircraft artillery to defend the Reich. This led to an Allied emphasis on jamming Würzburg and Mannheim gun-laying radars, and a German emphasis on developing counter-countermeasures. The contest went on to the end of the war.
The Germans managed to overcome Carpet jamming by providing Würzburg and Mannheim with a second band in the fall of 1943. The new band was centered around 58 cm (520 MHz), in contrast to the original band of 54 cm (560 MHz). A year later, they added a third band, around 66 cm (455 MHz). An adapter named “Wismar” was introduced in the summer of 1944 to allow rapid switching between bands.
Of course, as mentioned, the Allies improved the jammers to cover the new bands. Eventually, SIGINT receivers were carried on some bombers to determine enemy radar operating frequencies so the jamming could be focused on those bands for maximum effectiveness. Electronic warfare specialists, or “Ravens”, became an essential member of the bomber force crew.
The Germans tried more sophisticated counter-countermeasures as well. They devised an enhancement to Würzburg called “Würzlaus” that was introduced in the fall of 1943. Würzlaus could perform a limited amount of discrimination of targets on the basis of their motion. Moving objects caused a frequency shift, or “Doppler shift”, in the radar waves reflected off them, and this frequency shift could be measured to sort out drifting Window clouds from the bombers that dumped them. The “laus” suffix was derived from the German word for “louse”, and so the name basically meant “Würzburg delouser”. Würzlaus was an early attempt at what would become “Doppler radar” after the war.
The Germans introduced two other enhancements at the same time, named “Nürnburg” and “Taunus”. Nürnburg tried to sort out radar reflections that had an audio-frequency component, due to the engine vibrations of the target. Taunus was similar to one of the counter-countermeasures schemes developed for Chain Home, a filtering scheme that emphasized persistent targets (targets) and deemphasized transient ones (jamming). Yet another counter-countermeasures scheme, “Stendal”, tried to zero in on the jammer itself to target the carrier aircraft. Stendal turned out to be too inaccurate to be useful.

B-24 bomb strike on a German Rail yard

The Germans tried to improve on and combine these techniques, developing a scheme named “K-laus” near the end of the war that combined Doppler measurements with filtering, taking a bigger step towards Doppler radar. However, in general, the German counter-countermeasures were not very effective. In those days, radar operation was an art form, since radars effectively returned unprocessed data that a skilled operator had to interpret, picking out signals from the noise. Jamming only made matters worse. The German counter-countermeasures required very skilled operators to make good use of them, but the skill level of their operators was never very high on the average, and was degrading as more and more manpower was drained away to the front to hold back defeat.
Even when their radar was blinded, the anti-aircraft batteries generally kept up a heavy rate of fire, focused on the best guess for where the intruding formation was, and actually scored enough kills to make Allied countermeasures officers wonder if the countermeasures were actually working. Such “predicted barrages” also helped reassure the local population by at least giving the sound of putting up a strong defense. However, predicted barrages wasted enormous amounts of ammunition. During a raid through overcast by 720 USAAF bombers on Hamburg on 25 October 1944, the Germans fired over 24,400 rounds of heavy anti-aircraft ammunition, and shot down one bomber. Shortly after that, faced with using up ammunition faster than it could be manufactured, the practice was restricted to defense of high-priority installations. Bomber losses to flak then fell by 75%.

AMERICANS JOIN THE COUNTERMEASURES WAR

Over in the US, in December 1941, not long after Pearl Harbor, the push came down from the top to establish a countermeasures group named the “NDRC Division 15” or the “Radiation Research Laboratory (RRL). The RRL originally existed as an office in the Rad Lab. Its objectives were to develop countermeasures systems; help improve the resistance of US radars and other electronic systems to enemy countermeasures; and develop signals intelligence systems to monitor enemy radars and other electronic systems.
Luis Alvarez was offered the job of running the RRL, but he had other commitments and didn’t feel up to a major management job anyway. On his recommendation, the RRL was given to Frederick Terman, previously head of Stanford’s Electrical Engineering department.
The RRL was originally set up as an office at the Rad Lab. There were some tension between the RRL and the rest of the Rad Lab. A few of the Rad Lab engineers reacted emotionally when RRL engineers pointed out vulnerabilities in Rad Lab radars, the Rad Lab people feeling that the RRL was making life unnecessarily harder for them. Cooler heads pointed out that the enemy would certainly implement all the countermeasures they could think up and it was important to stay a step ahead; the message was accepted, if grudgingly.
However, the RRL quickly grew large and was soon, as planned, spun off as an independent organization, sited at Harvard University. Terman ran the RRL under an interesting arrangement where the research staff was basically on loan from their normal employers, who were still responsible for pay and benefits. The government reimbursed the companies for their expenses. This scheme allowed the workers to acquire seniority with their normal employers while they were working at RRL.
The RRL also had to spend considerable effort to make sure their most unreplaceable staff wasn’t snatched up by the draft board and put in the ranks, with the RRL in some cases sending their people overseas on field investigations to get them out of reach. The NRL and Signal Corps didn’t have this problem, since any of their people were targeted by the draft, they could be simply enlisted and come into work in uniforms instead of civilian clothes.
In April 1942, Terman went to the UK for six weeks to visit with Cockburn and his group at the TRE. The two men got along very well, and Terman was impressed by the skills of his British hosts. Cockburn visited the US in October 1942, of course including RRL in his list of places to visit, and was impressed in turn. The cooperation between the TRE and RRL remained good through the conflict. The RRL established an “American-British Laboratory of Division 15”, or just “ABL-15”, at the TRE site in Malvern to ensure that the two groups worked closely together. ABL-15 eventually grew to be as big as the TRE itself, with the joint lab focusing on immediate operational issues while the TRE conducted more fundamental research.


Not all of the collaborations worked well. In response to the limitations of the British Ground Grocer Lichtenstein B/C jammer, the RRL developed a monster ground-based jammer named “Tuba”, with an oversized horn antenna and a small fleet of support trucks. Tuba could light up fluorescent bulbs a mile away, and flammable things accidentally placed in the output path quickly caught on fire. It was superficially impressive but in practice never very effective, proving a nuisance to German night-fighters that were just across the Channel but causing no real bother otherwise.
Some other RRL projects worked much better. The RRL built their own designs of the Mandrel Freya jammer, known as “AN/APT-3” for airborne use and “AN/SPT-3” for shipboard use, and the Carpet Wuerzburg jammer, known as “AN/APT-2” or “AN/SPT-2”. As with the British, the RRL built improved versions of Carpet, and also built a number of other jammers, including “Dina”, “Rug”, and “Broadloom” to cover the spectrum of enemy radars.
The USAAF resisted the introduction of the Carpet for a time, since their initial bombing policy was for daylight, clear-weather strikes where radar jamming of Wuerzburg was of little use, but RRL managed to convince the service to adopt it anyway. The wisdom of this would become obvious once the USAAF began to use H2X to bomb on overcast days.
Late in the war, RRL also introduced a communications jammer, the “AN/ART-3 Jackal”, which was used to disrupt German tank radios. It was used in support of Allied counterthrusts against German armor during the Battle of the Bulge in late 1944 and early 1945. RRL also developed microwave radar jammers, but as will be discussed the enemy never got any microwave radars into real operation.
Ironically, even before the RRL had built any jammers, the USAAF had been jamming German radars without trying. The SCR-522 VHF radios carried on USAAF bombers happened to be on the same band as the Freya and could jam the radar when the radios were set to certain channels. The Germans realized this in early 1943, which suggested to them the possibility that they could use their own radios to jam Allied radars, but as it turned out no Allied radars were on the same band. The USAAF was slow to realize that the SCR-522 was jamming the Freya — but if the SCR-522 jammed the Freya, that meant that Freya was also jamming the SCR-522, and aircrews returning from missions over Europe complained of severe interference on certain radio channels. The problem was eventually traced to Freya, and RRL engineers designed fixes for the problem.
The Germans developed their own longwave jamming gear to blind Allied radars, including the powerful ground-based “Karl” jammer and much less powerful “Kettenhund” jammer, which was carried by bombers. They proved effective in disrupting SCR-268 longwave fire-control radars, leading to hasty efforts by the RRL to modify the SCR-268s to cut through the jamming. However, the German jammers were totally useless against microwave radars.
Signals intelligence gear was also part of the RRL’s charter. The Americans, or at least the US firms Halicrafters and General Radio Company (GRC), seemed to have acquired a particular skill at making radio receivers before the war, and during the conflict these receivers formed the basis for an ever-expanding range of Allied SIGINT gear. The British used the Halicrafters S-27 to pick up Seetakt and Freya emissions in early 1941, and the S-27 would be widely used by the Allies through the rest of the war.
The S-27 was a good piece of gear, but something more purpose-designed was needed. Luis Alvarez, always with a bright idea for somebody else to develop, enlisted an RRL engineer, a Canadian named Dr. Don Sinclair, to work with GRC to work between the RRL and GRC to modify the company’s “P-540” receiver into the US Army “SCR-587” and US Navy “ARC-1” SIGINT receiver, built by Philco.
The SCR-587 provided a bandwidth from 3 meters to 30 centimeters (100 MHz to 1 GHz) and was a valuable tool through the entire war. Don Sinclair would perform valuable work for the RRL in the lab and the field through the war. After the war, he would go to work for General Radio and eventually become company president.
The NRL also built small numbers of a SIGINT receiver, the “XARD”, that operated over the band from 6 meters to 30 centimeters (50 MHz to 1 GHz). It was a crude piece of gear, with tuning performed by adjusting the antenna, a tiresome scheme when the operator was searching back and forth over the band for possible “emitters”. It was also not very reliable, but it was one of the first US-built SIGINT receivers to be put into action, being taken on submarine patrols in the fall of 1942.
The SCR-587 was a much better piece of gear than the XARD, but even the SCR-587 had to be manually dialed over its band, which was tiresome and error-prone. The answer was to automate the process, allowing the receiver to automatically scan through its band.
The requirement was passed on to Peter Goldmark, an RRL engineer who had been borrowed from CBS. After the war, he would develop an alternative color TV system that didn’t prove successful but gave TV rival RCA fits, and more successfully developed the 33 1/3 RPM long-playing (LP) phonograph record — a universal technology until it was abruptly replaced by CD technology. His scanning receiver, the “AN/APR-2”, operated over the same band as the SCR-587. It could be set to scan over its bandwidth at different rates, using a neon indicator to show the frequencies where a signal was detected, and recording up to eight hours of monitoring on an electrochemical tape.

AN/APR-2 SIGINT receiver

The AN/APR-2 was a complicated piece of gear, and development proved troublesome. Goldmark was not very amused when one of his colleagues suggested that they drop a prototype on Japan, so that the enemy would struggle in vain for the rest of the war trying to get it to work. However, the RRL did manage to get it into service.

JAPANESE RADAR TECHNOLOGY AT WAR

Hidetsugu Yagi

At the end of 1941, the Japanese began a wide-ranging offensive that swept through the colonial possessions of the British, Americans, and Dutch in the western Pacific, reaching as far southeast as the north coast of New Guinea to threaten Australia. Among the benefits of this spectacular wave of conquest was the fact that the Japanese obtained a number of British GL-type sets in Singapore, as well as a US SCR-268 set and a damaged US SCR-270 set on Corregidor.
The IJA put a modified version of the GL into production as the “IJA Tachi 3”. It operated on a band around 3.75 meters (80 MHz), had a pulse width of one to two microseconds, a peak power of 50 kW, a PRF of 1,000 or 2,000 Hz, and a maximum range of about 40 kilometers (25 miles). About 150 were built by Sumitomo, with the type going into service in early 1944. The Tachi 3 set was the first Japanese set to incorporate Yagi antennas, which was a great irony, since such antennas were the invention of Hidetsugu Yagi, a Japanese electronics researcher of global stature. To add to the irony, Dr. Yagi had been involved in the development of the IJA Type A interference detector.
On their part, the IJN recognized the SCR-268 as a good piece of gear and put a derivative of it into production as the “IJN Mark IV Model 1”. It operated in a band around 1.5 meters (200 MHz), had a pulse width of 3 microseconds, a peak power of 30 kW, a PRF of 2,000 Hz. and a maximum range of about 48 kilometers (30 miles). It was followed by the improved “IJN Mark IV Model 2”, which had basically the same general specifications except that the PRF was reduced to 1,000 Hz. The Japanese built a few hundred of these radars in all.
The IJA also tried to build derivatives of the SCR-268 in the form of the “IJA Tachi 1”, “IJA Tachi 2”, and “IJA Tachi 4”, all operating on the 1.5 meter (200 MHz) band used by the SCR-268, but these radars did not prove satisfactory and were only built in small numbers. Late in the war, the IJA did introduce a much more workable derivative of the Tachi 4, the “IJA Tachi 31”, also operating at 1.5 meters (200 MHz), with 70 built.
In the meantime, both the IJN and IJA fielded derivatives of their earlier fixed-site radars. The IJN Mark I Model 1 was followed in 1942 by about 300 of a lighter transportable 1.5 meter (200 MHz) version, the “IJN Mark I Model 2”, and then in 1943 about 1,500 of an even lighter portable version, the 2 meter (150 MHz) “IJN Mark I Model 3”.
As if in parallel lockstep, the IJA followed their Tachi 6 in 1943 with about 60 transportable 3 meter (100 MHz) “IJA Tachi 7” sets, and in 1944 followed that with about 400 portable “IJA Tachi 18” sets, operating in the same band.
Other than being lighter, these radars were no great advance over their predecessors, being roughly comparable to the British MRU. However, since the Japanese had developed their own magnetron, in fact well ahead of the Allies, they also developed their own 10 cm (3 GHz) microwave set for naval warfare. The “IJN Mark II Model 2” radar was introduced in 1942, and was well-received by naval crews as a great step ahead of the unsatisfactory longwave Mark II Model 1. About 400 were built and deployed on a range of vessels.
The Mark II Model 2 had a peak power of 2 kW, a pulse width of 2 to 10 microseconds, a PRF of 2,500 Hz, and a range of about 35 kilometers (22 miles) against a large naval surface target. It had separate cone-shaped transmit and receive antennas, giving it the odd appearance of giant toy binoculars. It did not have a PPI, no operational Japanese set ever did, which greatly limited its usefulness for naval operations.
The Japanese also developed a lightweight longwave set, the “IJN Mark II Model 4”, operating at 1.5 meters (200 MHz), for use on small vessels and submarines. It is unclear if it saw much service.
During the first months of the US war against Japan, the Americans were so overwhelmed that worrying about Japanese radar capabilities didn’t even make the list. The issue didn’t bob to the surface until the US Marines landed on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands on 7 August 1942. The landings were not heavily opposed — a situation that gave a completely misleading impression of what to expect in the future — and the Marines quickly captured an IJN Type I Model 1 radar. The catch came as a surprise, apparently less because anyone thought the Japanese didn’t have radar than because few had given the matter much thought. The Japanese radar was dismantled and shipped stateside. NRL researchers found it crude, even in comparison with early American radars such as the SCR-270 and CXAM.

Consolidated B-24 Liberator

SIGINT receivers were quickly installed on submarines and aircraft to hunt for more Japanese radars. A Consolidated B-24 Liberator ferret that had been fitted with various SIGINT gear, including some lab breadboards, performed probes of the Japanese-held island of the Kiska in the Aleutians in March 1942, and discovered the signatures of two more IJN Type 1 Model 1 radars, which the SIGINT operator reported sounded exactly like the signature of the US SCR-270 longwave radar. Consolidated PBY Catalina flying boats were also configured as ferrets, and more Japanese radars were soon identified.
Submarine ferrets would prove as effective as their flying brethren, possibly more so because the enemy generally didn’t know submarines were around and didn’t turn off their emitters. However, no other types of Japanese radars were detected through most of 1943, though there were rumors and bogus “sightings” of other types, such as airborne radars that the Japanese simply didn’t have at the time.
Better information began to trickle in towards the end of the year, and in February 1944, following the capture of Kwajalein island, the Americans found documents describing a number of Japanese radars, most interestingly the centimetric Mark II Model 2 shipboard radar. Further landings during the spring and summer revealed more data about Japanese radars, including some sets captured intact.

GLIMMER & TAXABLE / OPERATION POST MORTEM

The countermeasures war reached its highest form during the Allied invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944.
R.V. Jones, working with a colleague in photo-reconnaissance named Claude Wavell, compiled a map of German radar assets to help pave the way for the assault. Some of the stations were located by photo or electronic reconnaissance, as well as reports from resistance groups, but subtler measures were used as well. The TRE set up a network of direction finding stations in England, codenamed “Ping Pong”, that could each pin down the location of a radar transmitter to within a quarter of a degree, with triangulation giving the exact location. In a particularly devious trick, the RAF flew solitary reconnaissance missions on precisely-defined tracks, with the German reports on the missions intercepted and decrypted, revealing locations of radar stations that had tracked the aircraft.
Three weeks before the invasion, Allied bombers and strike aircraft began to attack critical radar stations. Rocket-firing RAF Hawker Typhoon strike fighters proved most effective, but encountered heavy anti-aircraft defenses. The TRE fitted a few Typhoons with a device named “Abdullah” that could home in on radar sites; it was the ancestor of the modern “radar homing and warning (RHAW)” receiver used on “Wild Weasel” type defense suppression aircraft. Abdullah worked fine, but it proved to have a serious drawback. German radar sites that observed Allied aircraft flying straight down the boresight at them immediately put their flak defenses on full alert, and the effect of Abdullah was to simply make the attacks harder. It was set aside, and attack plans were modified so that the Typhoons flew an oblique course toward a radar site and only turned directly on it at the last moment.
Squadrons of countermeasures aircraft screened the airborne assault force and the naval force. The countermeasures aircraft carried Mandrel radar jammers and Airborne Grocer radio jammers, and dropped “Rope”, essentially the same thing as Window but cut to 1.7 meter (5 feet 6 inch) lengths to jam Freya frequencies. Window and Rope were collectively known as “chaff”. Incidentally, Rope led the Germans to introduce a Doppler detection system for Freya, of course known as “Freya-laus”, which was also used on Mammut. A similar device, “Wasserfloh”, was used on Wassermann.
The invasion fleet also carried 800 jammers, with some landing ships fitted out as dedicated jamming platforms. Of course, the landing force also heavily relied on radar, with radar beacons set up by pioneer teams on landing beaches and passive radar “corner reflectors” or “Angels” set up to mark obstacles. Since there were fears that the Germans might try to disrupt the longwave Eureka beacons with airborne Kettenhund jammers, a handful of British Mosquito night fighters were fitted with a TRE gadget named “Lucero” that could home in on Kettenhund transmissions.
Along with direct countermeasures, the Allies conducted a massive deception campaign with many facets. Signals deception efforts were used to create simulated armies that seemed to be poised for landings in the Calais area and in Norway. Another part was the construction of two electronically simulated landing fleets by a team of TRE boffins under Robert Cockburn.
Developing the scheme involved clearing Cockburn for briefing on the invasion plan, and after he was briefed in detail in February 1944, he could hardly sleep for days after being entrusted with such a dangerous secret.
The goal of the effort was to spoof almost 100 German radar stations along the French and Belgian coasts. Seetakt was the primary target, but the plan was designed to fool other radars as well. Rope was to be used to simulate vessels, with bundles dropped at low altitude to form a ship-sized cloud that disappeared into the water before it spread, to be replaced by another cloud of Rope.
Two simulated invasion fleets set out on the evening of 5 June 1944. One, codenamed TAXABLE, consisted of eight Lancaster bombers and moved in the direction of Le Havre. The second, codenamed GLIMMER, consisted of six bombers and moved towards Bologne, 300 kilometers (185 miles) farther east.
The bombers simulated a surface fleet by flying in a racetrack pattern about 22 kilometers (14 miles) long at a speed of 290 KPH (180 MPH). The crew members dispensed Rope on a precisely timed schedule to ensure that the Rope clouds advanced at a rate consistent with the motion of a surface fleet. Aircraft with Mandrel jammers accompanied the two “fleets”, but operated at low power to allow German radars to penetrate their “jamming”.
The whole scheme required detailed planning and coordination, and had been rehearsed against British radar operators in Scotland in May. They reported it effective, but just to make sure, another test was performed against a radar station on the Yorkshire coast where the operators hadn’t been briefed beforehand. They reported the biggest convoy they had ever spotted.
Following the rehearsals, Cockburn got hold of 18 launches and worked them into the deception plan. The launches were equipped with an enhanced version of the Moonshine pulse repeater tuned to the German Hohentweil ASV band, and also towed floats known as “Filberts” that were in turn tethered to 9 meter (30 foot) long barrage balloons. The Filberts carried 3 meter (10 foot) diameter Angels to simulate a large vessel.
British signal operators in the mock fleet began to pick up contacts with radars of German air patrols about midnight. When the deception fleets got to about 16 kilometers (10 miles) offshore from their targets, they generated smokescreens and played the sounds of a large fleet in operation over big loudspeakers.
Elsewhere, RAF Stirling and Halifax bombers performed a fake airborne assault, releasing Rope, as well as little dolls on parachutes that looked like real paratroopers from a distance, fitted with firecrackers to suggest small-arms fire. A few British Special Air Service commandos went in with the dolls to help create further confusion.
In the meantime, RAF Lancaster and Flying Fortress bombers blocked the real airdrops by dropping a wall of Rope and blasting out communications jamming. German night-fighters were dispatched to attack the fake airdrop, but couldn’t even find it when the communications jamming cut off their connection to their ground controllers. One RAF bomber involved in the deception exercise was shot down, the crew successfully bailing out. None of the transports involved in the true airdrop were attacked by night fighters.
Cockburn’s deception effort was successful as well, though it proved to be overkill. TAXABLE was not observed, mostly because most of the German radar stations it was intended to fool had been knocked out by air strikes. GLIMMER, on the other hand, seemed to have been very successful, sowing confusion among the Germans. R.V. Jones does not seem to have been directly involved in these two exercises. Given his inclination towards pranks, he likely wished he had been.
Following the German surrender, the Allies interrogated German radar systems operators to determine the effectiveness of countermeasures. To get hands-on data, in late June and early July 1945, the British performed Operation POST MORTEM, in which the air defense network dealt with flights of bombers simulating attacks. The British learned that Allied countermeasures had been highly effective, though not entirely perfect.
After the operation, some of the German gear was packed off to Britain and the US for analysis. Most of the rest was demolished, though some was quietly spirited away by organizations in the countries of what had been Occupied Europe for their own analysis, and items such as Wuerzburg-Riese antennas were used for purposes such as radio astronomy.

http://www.vectorsite.net/ttwiz_09.html

Falklands War

Chaff was heavily used by British warships in the Falklands War. The absence of chaff launchers on the Atlantic Conveyor, while used by all other Royal Navy ships in the group, may have led to the ship’s sinking by an Exocet missile – although given the vessel’s large radar cross section, it is unlikely that chaff would have been effective.
During the war, British Sea Harrier aircraft lacked their conventional chaff dispensing mechanism. Therefore Royal Navy engineers designed an impromptu delivery system of welding rods, split pins and string which allowed six packets of chaff to be stored in the airbrake well and be deployed in flight. It was often referred to as the “Heath Robinson chaff modification”, due to its complexity.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaff_%28countermeasure%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kammhuber_Line
http://www.vectorsite.net/ttwiz_08.html

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YOUTUBE CHAFFERY

“admitted to aerosols and say it is to fight global warming” – INCORRECT. The study of aerosols is carried out to discover the part anthropogenic combustion activities play in global warming.

“as far back as ww 2 for radar” – CHAFF ISN’T AN AEROSOL.

“caught lying” – WHEREAS THE REST OF US?

“money and power” – NO, JUST POWER.

“This is military” – 5% OF AVIATION?

“heavy since 98-99” – NO, LONG BEFORE. 98-99 WAS CHEAP VIDEOCAMS.

“cats licking because they like salt” – MAYBE THEY NEED SALT…

“delivery system they need on or in aircraft” – ON THAT 5%?

“full of yourself, usually means you’re lacking” – LEARNT THOROUGHLY BY AGE OF 65!

“Aerosol trails” – PERSISTENT CONTRAILS IN COLD HUMID AIR – “contrails” – SHORT-LIVED CONTRAILS IN COLD DRY AIR – “lower jets leaving none all” – IN WARM TROPOSPHERIC AIR.

Spelling corrected… can’t do anything about your ability to LISTEN.

eartrumplb

CHECKERED

e. coli

e. coli

“there have been tests…Aluminum, Fluorescent Particles of zinc cadmium sulfide, e.coli, bacillus globigii (it mimics anthrax), serratia marcescens, bacteria, phenol” – of RAINWATER. You will find ALL of these in COMMON GARDEN SOIL (excepting ZCS). There are MILLIONS of bugs on YOU. MANY of them are a lot more HARMFUL than KILLED bacteria.

“Believe what you want” – SCIENCE works independently from BELIEF. I am talking about ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE that has been KNOWN and PUBLISHED these last SIXTY years.

bacillus globigii

bacillus globigii

serratia marcescens

serratia marcescens

albertaoilers – “Chem Trails are out there” – there is proof of NOT A SINGLE ONE.

“but they have more of a checkerboard layout” – GRIDS are the result of TWO crossing routes of PASSENGER SHUTTLE flights.

“White C-130 are often observed around legitimate chemtrail reports” – there HASN’T BEEN a LEGITIMATE “chemtrail” report.

CHERRY

“If you want to ignore the evidence” – I ignore cherry-picked and manufactured evidence.

“If you dont believe the scientists” – I AM a scientist.

“Morgellons pathogens” – I go with Wikipedia.

“EDB banned US EPA” – Those wily farmers with their old pesticides…there’s none in jet fuel…

“Groups of 3 with jets flying front/side” – Military.

“Its not fairly harmless when its 7 times higher than safety limits and your inhaling it” – No dust is safe to inhale, let’s face it. What report was that?

“so why has anthrax been found in the air when chemtrails are being dispersed if its not in the air (when vapour trails have been seen)” – It is in the air. It’s an airborne pathogen. It’s natural. How could you distinguish chemtrails from persistent contrails?

“2 chemtrails” – oh dear we’re finished. The products of VAPOR TRAILS (they’re on the wrong side of the TROPOPAUSE) won’t fall to the ground beneath them unless the atmosphere REMAINS PERFECTLY STILL FOR DAYS. I’ve not seen that since 1976 (North Wales).

summer76

So what exactly is being measured?

* If “Morgellons” has a three hundred year old history, how could it have been aircraft that were dispersing that three hundred years ago? When was the switch to aircraft made?

If “Morgellons” is a tailor-made pathogen, who tailor-made it in 1708 AD?

1708-ad

CHUPACABRA

“Allowing yourself to be a vessel for spreading deception is wrong whether or not you are doing (it) intentionally or out of ignorance” – Why, that’s the very nub of my anti-“chemtrail” argument! You are arguing with SCIENCE. Science is NEVER correct and ALWAYS amended, for it is understood to be FALLIBLE.

Nevertheless, in the case of “chemtrails” ALL CT ARGUMENTS SO FAR PRESENTED are based on the FAULTY UNDERSTANDING OF THE PHYSICAL NATURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE, coupled with an understandable dislike of the existing power structure (which I share – as if you cared).
Now arguing with Science is like arguing with Mathematics. Both function perfectly WITHOUT requirement of BELIEF. To present new arguments you MUST demonstrate you are FULLY cognizant of the totality of knowledge of either, and persuade OTHER WELL-QUALIFIED PEOPLE to EXPLORE and VALIDATE your new THEORY. Best of luck. None of you have ANY CHANCE of doing that – your COMPETENCE is WAY off the bottom of the chart.
YOUR standpoint is ALWAYS correct and NEVER amended, based on the writing of ignorant peasant tribes holding to an INFALLIBLE origin – a MYTH.
You bind each other with the LIES YOU TELL EACH OTHER.
It must be an IRONY for you that our “non-argument” was originated and continues only by courtesy of SCIENCE via this media.
So bugger off and get back to your mumbo-jumbo, burn a witch, stand on a mountaintop, continue making ridiculous and malevolent assertions, suck a goat, whatever.

chupacabra21

Contrails to Cirrus

Morphology, Microphysics, and Radiative Properties

DAVID ATLAS – Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
ZHIEN WANG – Goddard Earth Science and Technology Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
DAVID P. DUDA – National Institute of Aerospace, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia

report11

Introduction
The observation of the transformation of aircraft contrails to cirrus clouds has been reported repeatedly over the last half-century.
Appleman (1953) was one of the first to determine the atmospheric conditions in which ice crystals would form and persist. Knollenberg (1972) made the earliest in situ microphysical measurements in the resulting cirrus uncinus clouds. Further microphysical studies were made by Heymsfield (1975), and again many years later (Heymsfield et al. 1998). Konrad and Howard (1974) provided an insightful morphology of contrail cirrus and fallstreaks as viewed by ultrasensitive radars.
A number of investigators have reported the origin and growth of the initial tufts associated with contrails (Lewellen and Lewellen 2001; Gierens 1996) while Schröder et al. (2000) measured their initial microphysical properties during their transition to cirrus.
The reader will also find a number of useful papers on the subject in a special issue of Geophysical Research Letters (1998, Vol. 25, No. 9) dealing with the program “The Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS)” (e.g., Minnis et al. 1998; Spinhirne et al. 1998; Lawson et al. 1998; Uthe et al. 1998). A particularly enlightening study of the spreading and growth of contrail clouds has resulted from the numerical simulations of Jensen et al. (1998).
Recent interest in contrails has focused upon their climatic impact and their geographical distribution (Minnis et al. 2004; DeGrand et al. 2000). All of the above provide the background for the present study. The reader is referred to a fine review article by Minnis (2003) for further background.
It was the exciting view of the transformation of a series of contrails seen by the lead author and the fortuitous availability of nearly simultaneous satellite imagery and automated lidar measurements that triggered the present work.
The goals of this study are to provide further insight into the processes responsible for such transformations and to combine them with prior literature in the hope of attaining a more robust synthesis of the mechanisms than would otherwise be possible.
report2
Abstract
This work is two pronged, discussing 1) the morphology of contrails and their transition to cirrus uncinus, and 2) their microphysical and radiative properties.
It is based upon the fortuitous occurrence of an unusual set of essentially parallel contrails and the unanticipated availability of nearly simultaneous observations by photography, satellite, automated ground-based lidar, and a newly available database of aircraft flight tracks.
The contrails, oriented from the northeast to southwest, are carried to the southeast with a component of the wind so that they are spread from the northwest to southeast. Convective turrets form along each contrail to form the cirrus uncinus with fallstreaks of ice crystals that are oriented essentially normal to the contrail length.
Each contrail is observed sequentially by the lidar and tracked backward to the time and position of the originating aircraft track with the appropriate component of the wind. The correlation coefficient between predicted and actual time of arrival at the lidar is 0.99, so that one may identify both visually and satellite-observed contrails exactly.
Contrails generated earlier in the westernmost flight corridor occasionally arrive simultaneously with those formed later closer to the lidar to produce broader cirrus fallstreaks and overlapping contrails on the satellite image. The minimum age of a contrail is two hours and corresponds to the longest time of travel to the lidar.
The lag between the initial formation of the contrail and its first detectability by Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is thirty-three minutes, thus accounting for the distance between the aircraft track and the first detectable contrail by satellite. The lidar also provides particle fall speeds and estimated sizes, optical extinction coefficients, optical thickness (0.35 micrometres), and ice water path (IWP 8.1 grammes per square metre). These values correspond to the lower range of those found for midlatitude cirrus by Heymsfield et al.
The ice water per meter of length along the cloud lines is 103–104 times that released by typical jet aircraft. The synthesis of these findings with those of prior investigators provides confidence in the present results.
Various authors find that contrail-generated cirrus such as reported here contribute to net regional warming.

report3
http://www-pm.larc.nasa.gov/sass/pub/journals/atlas_JAMC2006.pdf

contrail-to-cirrus

fire-rainbow

STARS15K’s REFERENCE LIST

I’m happy to include here STARS15K’s reference list – all except my own site and some spoof sites. By leafing through this material and absorbing it, you could become sufficiently science-aware to be able to continue this blog yourself, for example. 🙂
http://pdf.aiaa.org/preview/CDReadyMASM06_778/PV2006_1414.pdf
http://www.aip.org/dbis/AGU/stories/14203.html
http://www.airliners.net/aviation-articles/read.main?id=85
http://ams.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1175%2F1520-0450(1997)036%3C1211%3AAEMTPW%3E2.0.CO%3B2&ct=1
http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/94176.pdf
http://www.answers.com/topic/chemtrail-conspiracy-theory
http://www.answers.com/topic/contrail
http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/GLOBE/science.html
http://www.borderlands.com/contrails/contrail.htm
http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/wxwise/class/contrail.html
http://contrail.gi.alaska.edu/misc/Stuefer_HyannisOct04.pdf
http://contrailscience.com/
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/policy_guidance/envir_policy/media/contrails.pdf
http://facstaff.uww.edu/travisd/pdf/climatepapermar04.pdf
http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/climate/ipcc/aviation/038.htm
http://www.iangoddard.com/contrail.htm
http://www.iangoddard.com/contral2.htm
ftp://ftp.pa.op.dlr.de/pub/Gierens/TAC/Gierens_contrails_oral_060629.pdf
http://pdf.aiaa.org/preview/CDReadyMASM06_778/PV2006_1414.pdf
http://profhorn.aos.wisc.edu/wxwise/AckermanKnox/chap15/contrail_applet.html (this site has a graph for you to set conditions and will fly a plane with the expected contrail formation at the top)
http://www.scienceagogo.com/news/contrail_controversy.shtml
http://www.scienceblog.com/community/older/1997/B/199701880.html
http://www.scienceblog.com/community/older/1999/A/199900242.html
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/04/040428061056.htm
http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/media/news6-97.html
http://students.ou.edu/J/Thomas.A.Jones-1/contrail.html
http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/fgz/science/contrail.php?wfo=fgz
http://www-angler.larc.nasa.gov/satimage/products.html
http://www-pm.larc.nasa.gov/sass/sass-ref.html
http://deoxy.org/meme/AviationSmog_Talk
http://www.areco.org/pdf/ParticulateEmissionsJetEngines1996.pdf
http://www.csicop.org/si/2009-02/radford.html
http://biblion.epfl.ch/EPFL/theses/2004/2975/EPFL_TH2975.pdf
http://www.knmi.nl/velthove/aircraft.html
http://www.epa.gov/oms/regs/nonroad/aviation/contrails.pdf
http://www.scribd.com/doc/14605078/Contrails-facts
http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/pa1c/GRL22_1501-1504_1995.pdf
http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/climate/ipcc/aviation/035.htm (this link has many chapters, be sure and drop the menu down to get the full report.)
http://www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/7/13175/2007/acpd-7-13175-2007-print.pdf
http://www.skepdic.com/chemtrails.html
http://chemcon.2020oregon.net
http://www.dropletmeasurement.com/ (I just found this link on a chemtrail board. The poster claimed it showed chemspray planes. It doesn’t, it shows a company that does sampling and measurement IN SITU. I keep telling people that’s how a contrail would have to be tested, and this company can and does just that.)
http://www.contrails.nl/contrails-research/various%2001.htm
http://www.astro.ku.dk/holger/IDA/notes.html (This site is older and some links might not work. It is a good representation that contrails are studied all over the world, though)
http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/GLOBE/resources/activities/appleman_student.html
http://skeptoid.com/episodes/4027http://www.dhmo.org/
http://www.thebulletin.org/files/064002006_0.pdf A really well-done, balanced piece on geo-engineering. Not about chemtrails, but a good guide to use when considering that as a possible use/motive for chemtrail use.
http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/GLOBE/resources/presentations/contrails_scool.pdf
http://www.scribd.com/doc/13115866/Chemtrailscc-the-Not-So-Secret-Ingredient-022009 This is a pro-CT publication, but has a diagram of the chemical process of jet fuel through an engine and a statement that any metallic aerosol will remain suspended for days. These go against what I’ve been told by CT here. The conclusions reached, I do not agree with. Other research has shown that the barium in Stadis 450 after combustion is significantly small enough it might even NOT show on certain tests, being within the expected “norm” of background.
http://profhorn.aos.wisc.edu/wxwise/AckermanKnox
http://www.worldclimatereport.com/index.php/2004/04/19/leaving-a-trail/
http://www.atoptics.co.uk/rayshad.htm This is the entire site address, which is very cool. It also contains past galleries I have only begun to explore.
http://www.atoptics.co.uk/atoptics/contr1.htm This shows contrail shadows, aka ‘black beams’ or ‘black contrails’. There are two pages with explanations.
http://www.atoptics.co.uk/fz215.htm This page shows contrail shadows, but most importantly, two jets flying at the same altitude with different contrails. The reason? Something stated often, difference in the jet engines. One is more efficient than the other. So it happens, but for a known reason.

Turbofan Exhaust Constituents

Turbofan Exhaust Constituents

Written by JazzRoc

November 13, 2008 at 1:00 am

Posted in atmosphere, chemtrails, contrails, global warming, science, Truth

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PAGE CONTENTS

91177info – A PAGE FROM YOUTUBE – ALTN – ALUMINUM/BARIUM – ANDERS – DISCOVERY?

Don’t forget my other pages, links and comments are one click away at the top right of the page… 

91177info

91177info
The chemtrail petition has the necessary signatures to get a response from the government. 600 so far but if anyone would like a personal email detailing what our government is doing or is aware of please see the top link.
 

beachcomber2008
the report states that the BEST DISPERSAL HEIGHT IS 80,000 FEET.  Only U2s and X15s fly up there, and all they can carry is cameras and electronics.  That altitude is TWICE AS HIGH as the CEILINGS of modern aircraft and is IMPOSSIBLE TO REACH WITH ANY TYPE OF TANKER.  That’s why they conclude that SEEDING OCEAN CLOUDS and FEEDING IRON TO OCEAN CENTRES are the only routes immediately viable.  They haven’t done those either, unfortunately.  It makes RUBBISH out of your video post, doesn’t it? 

The ideal place for spraying is the stratopause, but no aircraft can reach that height.

91177info
Yes they do seed clouds. There are private companies that do as such and videos of companies cloud seeding on youtube.  I am very happy with my video as it has added to the pool of information which thousands of researches are finding out and adding to themselves.  Some information may be speculative, some may be far fetched but I believe I was the first to find these documents of the UK government actually suggesting adding chemicals to aviation fuel and making it available on youtube.
 

 
 
 
 
 

the temperature of our atmosphere

 

beachcomber2008
You are proposing something, on the other hand, which you REALLY know nothing about.  It therefore seems “reasonable” to you to behave the way you do.  Any scientist or engineer who reads what you write will shake their head.  Where were you when brains were handed out?  You can’t even find the relevant research materials, which are freely available on the net.  You also appear unable to read.  If DEFRA claims it would be difficult to do, then they haven’t done it.  You don’t appear to notice that. 

91177info
Yes I know I haven’t been able to give as much attention to the subject of chemtrails and find the necessary documents.  I was distracted by the swine flu last year and the so called deadly pandemic we were supposed to be in.  Which turned out to be a false alarm and a way for our governments to syphon off tax payers money.  They lied it was a false alarm.  This vid is 10 months old so maybe I should return to investigate chemtrails.  After the petition at 10 Downing St which ends in March.
 

beachcomber2008
Truly infantile. “Look, a plane is flying overhead and there are some rocks on the ground shaped like the letter C.  It’s a clue!  Proof for chemtrails!”.  You’ll never be taken seriously by anyone with critical faculties who can weigh evidence.  You’ll just continue to talk amongst your buddies with the same psychological disposition about your escapist fantasies and waste the time of your other friends, pestering us with the latest “proof” for your delusions. Yes, I actually read the document. 

91177info
You’re the one who is delusional.  In fact, looking through your comments for the last six months – You’re a total fruitcake. You are also a liar and I hate liars.  Now which document did you think you read?  hmm?
 

beachcomber2008
@91177info, Stephen Salter made a submission to this committee – this: 

You’ll find it on my channel and also at jazzroc. wordpress. com on my “Jet Spray” page because it’s a brilliant and cheap idea.  Yes, I actually read the document. many times, many places.  All this stuff is just the consideration of options, many of which are dead ducks.  You lack the nous to make any sensible discrimination whatsoever.  Scientific understanding, if you ever found it, might help you… 

91177info
There is no government legalisation and private companies can virtually spray what they want up there as it been reported on MSM.  So really you don’t have a clue what is being sprayed.  Of course you would say it is just water vapour.  You started your comment thread very defensive/protective and rude.  You think all is well and no damage is being caused to us or our earth, fine.  That’s your instinct.  Mine says something is not right and there are millions of other people who feel the same.
 

beachcomber2008
@91177info, I actually C&P’d someone else’s comment which exactly suited this.  I’m not talking about INSTINCT.  I’m talking about EXPERIENCE.  I KNOW there is nothing in the trails and I can PROVE there is nothing in the trails.  You can neither KNOW or PROVE anything.  Aviation fuel is made up to a recipe by the admixture of conditioners to a locally-made petroleum distillate, so it will be subtly different wherever the plane refuels.  But there’s only one type of jetfuel and it’s for ALL planes. 

TBA4Freedom
beachcomber2008, Obviously you didn’t read the entire 163 pages…I can tell by what you are saying. Pull it up again and READ it this time…..then come back and debate with us.
 

dbootsthediva
Isn’t it quite the coincidence that Mars has quite an abundance of sulphate.  Perhaps those tubes we have seen on Mars are them harvesting minerals.  Great video. 

maryjaneofthejungle
Chemtrails also (amongst other chemicals) contain barium. The EPA states dose factors under 2 parts per billion is safe from harm.  Rainwater collected after chemspraying has been found to have up to 6 parts per billion.  Jet fuel sometimes referred to as JP-5 or JP-8 is regulated by the Department of Commerce.  Good luck getting a hold of them.  When no1 gives us an answer or we’re completely ignored on a subject we can only believe its something we’d not take well.  Then again I’d ignore any scrambled answer they’d “come up with” at this point.  Two good reasons. Vitamin D kills the flu virus.  And the spray contains chemicals to help the viral envelope fuse with lung cells for easier infection. 

ramptondayrelease
Well done for blocking that muppet. Good info here. 

dickyco2
Contrails, Climate Changing Clouds of Combustion spewed by 8mile high Oil burning “Smogliners” whose exhaust products acts as the nucleus for the formation of ice crystals that are Contrails ,that persist spread to form Contrail-Cirrus a days heat trapping ( as clouds tend to do) thermal blanket of exhaust cloud.  This is Geo-engineering.  Contrails.  Climate Changing Clouds of Combustion.  FairyChemTales a Big Oil spray story to cloud the Environmental Disaster of Vast Oil Burning. 

UkTruthSeeker2009
Chemtrails day & night in UK the sun rarely shows and when it does they are back to cover it.  EVIL GOVERNMENTS. 

nrgstream
Help heal the planet, google ‘orgonite’. It’s a simple compound anyone can create in their backyard with fairly inexpensive, widely-available materials which balances ambient energy by turning the negative energy into positive energy, with many easily-confirmed effects. Orgonite does this continuously, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, without electricity. 

gtb393
Truely infantile. “Look, a plane is flying overhead and there are some rocks on the ground shaped like the letter C.  It’s a clue!  Proof for chemtrails!”.  You’ll never be taken seriously by anyone with critical faculties who can weigh evidence. You’ll just continue to talk amongst your buddies with the same psychological disposition about your escapist fantasies and waste the time of your other friends, pestering us with the latest “proof” for your delusions. Yes, I actually read the document. 

91177info
gtb393 ??? Joined April 24 2007 Channel Views 0 No Favourites No Uploads Comments 0 Channel Comments 0 Now I really do not need to ask what drew you to my vid do I??  All your appearance has done is reaffirm to the thousands of subscribers that:
A: There really is something going on.
B: You’re a SHILL.
C: You’re EVIL
D: You are not welcome here
E: You’re now on my BLOCKED list 

Wecknachricht
now we can go to every official government agencies and present the document and ask for explanation… 

starywron
Great find, mate.  thanks for share it with the rest of us here.  Jazzroc – where are you now, you old fool and lier? 

91177info
BocScar is either working for the CDC or Baxter. He has several accounts jazzroc and stars15k, he has been paid to do this. He/She is using an avatar which is used by the CDC and is listed in the pdf documents that Jane Burgermeister sent me. See my website link on my profile for more info.  There are other shills which have been paid to do this. But BocScar is classic and very persistent. You just have to read through the comments to see what I mean. Love to those that want it. Jason x 

boxa888
hey the weather up here has been weird so far, the whole month of june has been rain, i think its a new record here in this area lol. 

UkTruthSeeker2009
I have a few shills as well youtube is crawling with them trying to confuse chemtrails with contrails LOL There is no argument we’re not stupid I was looking for stuff today and googled reports in the UK AND FOUND ONE AT GLOBAL RESEARCH UK 

91177info
Try this site all the evidence is here in photos/maps and graphs.  asp bnl gov/  Just replace the space with an .  I will get back to this but the swindle flu is the main headlines lol 

BocScar
I never heard of jazzroc and stars15 is a 40 yr old woman.  You’ll need to work harder to pass the detectives exam. 

91177info
Now why on earth would you come back to this video and reply to a new comment thread which wasn’t in reply to one of yours?  I have been waiting for this test for 2 weeks and actually I have just passed my detective exam because you fell for my trap.  BocScar you are a shill, your icon is one used in Baxter International labs which can be seen in Jane Burgermeister’s file charges.  Goodbye. 

graverobber35
Well, dickhead, since you are from england, you HAVE to love moslems. they have taken over your bloody country. Yes, I like guns, that is one of our freedoms here in the US. And I do like women. That would obviously offend a faggot like you. blow it out your windpipe, abdul. 

91177info
Actually, what you say you like doing to women tells me it is actually YOU that has faggot tendencies!  Another moron that uses the same username throughout the web and his email address. You paranoid racist anal loving moron. 

91177info
I am very sorry to use the terminology that graverobber35 has used. They are not words I use and I only used them in context to what he was saying to me. 

graverobber35
Sorry , I lost my tin foil hat in the flood. 

91177info
You lost a lot more than that. Your nothing more than a muslim hating gun loving womanising thug.  This user said that: “mohammed was a child molester” on hardyk1’s channel.  By the way always make sure the barrel of your gun isn’t blocked, not being psychic or anything 😉
 
BocScar
Did you even bother to read the conclusion?  “It is clear from the assessment of geo-engineering options presented here that there are large uncertainties regarding the effectiveness, impacts, technical feasibility, cost and risks of all the schemes considered. As a consequence of these uncertainties, we feel that it is premature at this stage to draw firm conclusions on the feasibility of implementing the schemes discussed”.  They don’t even know if geoengineering is possible! 

91177info
Bother? I’m well bothered.  They are getting private companies to do this. They are? testing it out now! Trying different chemicals and mixtures. With out consulting or warning the public.  Why?  Because we are expendable and our lives and heath doesn’t matter.  It really makes me angry.  I mean really fucking angry. 

BocScar
Did you read the report’s conclusion? They say that they don’t know if geoengineering is even possible.  If they admit in the report that geoengineering might not even be possible, how can you use the report as proof that “chemtrails are real and I believe are happening now with out public consultation.” 

91177info
Because they are lying, thieving, murdering bastards. They killed over a million Iraqi civilians on this plagiarised dossier: Downing Street’s dossier against Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction is accused of plagiarism.  Channel Four News has learnt that the bulk of an intelligence dossier heralded by Colin Powell at the UN yesterday, was copied from three different articles – one written by a graduate student”.  BocScar, Do you really think they will tell us the truth after the above quotes? 

BocScar
 -Because they are lying, thieving, murdering bastards.- I’m talking of the DE & CC document referenced in the video.  On the one hand you accept this document when it speaks of stratospheric aerosols, but on the other hand you reject it when it states that geoengineering might not even be possible.  So is the DE&CC document true or a lie? 

91177info
What do you think I think? 

BocScar
I’m not sure what you think.  I’m not sure. You seem to agree with the parts of the DECC document that fit your preconceived notions, and disagree with the parts that don’t.  You use this government document to “prove” they are conducting geoengineering, but ignore the part where it says that geoengineering might not be possible.  I’m asking for clarification. 

91177info
Going back a couple of months, people like Stars15k, o0Nighthawk0o, Shilltastic and possibly you were stating there was no evidence of such programs and chemtrails were just water vapour. Nothing was and could be sprayed in the skies.  This is a government document which states such programs and is inviting private research companies to share their research and knowledge.  These programs are happening right now.  Stop moving the goal posts.  Chemtrails are real. 

BocScar
-These programs are happening right now.- So according to you the government is publicly inviting research companies and publishing feasibility studies on the Internet while at the same time secretly spraying the sky in full daylight, hoping nobody will notice.  The DECC document offers possible quick fix solutions to mitigate global warming and then it cautions that these solutions are dangerous and might not even be feasible. 

91177info
Private companies are spraying yes.  So at last you acknowledge chemtrails.  Thankyou. 

BocScar
What are private companies spraying in the air? 

91177info
You tell me.  You’re paid to do this “argumentum ad hominem” 

BocScar
You are the one that claims private companies are spraying.  I assume you know what you are talking about.  So please tell me, what private companies are spraying?  I really want to know. 

91177info
Hold on let me look in the yellow pages. 

BocScar
So, I take it you don’t know.  You claim private companies are conducting secret spraying operations but can’t even name one of them.  How can you conclude that private companies are involved?  On what are you basing your statement that private companies are involved? 

neptuneey
We live in a Corporate world, they’re all Private companies. Even you are a corporation. 

BocScar
What’s your point? 

neptuneey
Just looking for human qualities..  U failed. 

BocScar
This isn’t a philosophical discussion about human nature.  The guy made a concrete statement that private companies are spraying the air.  If he knows these companies are private then he must also know their names. 

91177info
If you could just stop beating your bishop for a moment and look at the reply I have sent you. 

BocScar
Stating that the scientific community is researching solutions to our environmental mess is not acknowledging “chemtrails”.  The word “chemtrail” implies covert programs to dumb down the population or block out the sun by deliberately using chemicals.  I do not acknowledge “chemtrails” and I’ve tried to point out that neither does the DECC document. 

91177info
Chemical Contrails then.  Spraying or releasing chemicals via aerosol or the exhaust of aircraft fuel.  They are doing exactly what it says on the tin.  It is interesting you say “dumb down”??  That is very telling BocScar.  I’ve been talking about Global Dimming. 

BocScar
I’ll ask you again.  What are private companies spraying in the air? 

91177info
Page 26 of the pdf states “if other parties, countries and institutions wished to develop a shared approach, DECC would be interested in sharing expertise, and in helping to develop an initial detailed scoping study”.  Google these: ukca ac uk – GLOMAP – SLIMCAT/TOMCAT – CiTTyCAT – EU Aerosol IP – AEROCOM emissions/validation – EUSAAR data 

BocScar
They are looking to partner with the private sector to “develop an initial scoping study”. initial… study…   How do you conclude from that statement that private companies are currently engaged in a global dimming campaign?  These are either feasibility studies, environmental studies and one of them only tries to set research protocols for data base sharing… but never mind…  Which one of those companies is currently engaged in a covert global dimming campaign? 

91177info
WOW BocScar how do “YOU” know about these sites and give an answer so quickly?  Can you do me a favour here?  Please swear on your families life, the generations of your family which are now in the spirit world and ALL the genetic strain of your family in the future that YOU, are not involved in any way with chemtrails, chemical contrails, the military, and the government. And you are just some regular youtube user.  So I BocScar swear (You fill in the rest here) 

BocScar
You told me about the sites…  so I looked at them.  These people can loosely be characterized as atmospheric researchers.  I swear I am not in the service of any government or any secret society to misinform anyone about anything nor am I involved directly or indirectly in perpetrating illegal covert chemical campaigns against the atmosphere or the population. LOL  Look… you make statements like “private companies are spraying”,  “chemtrails are real”.  I’m asking you to explain yourself because I don’t see it.  Every time one asks for some kind of evidence you guys point to publicly available government documents produced by the same government you claim is secretly conducting the spraying.  You claim the DECC document proves “chemtrails” but ignore its conclusion that geoengineering is not advisable and may not even be feasible. 

91177info
Thankyou for swearing BocScar.  All I know is what I see and what I have researched.  I am an artist by trade and I paint landscapes.  I love to draw clouds.  I am always looking at clouds ever since I was 4 years old and my mum pointed out a face in the cloud.  From then on I have always looked up at clouds and I have made faces out of what I see.  Back in February during a landscape photography assignment I became aware of the chemtrails, white lines. That is when the spraying started in my area.  I am a very aware person, I follow the seasons and live with nature.  I love sunsets and follow the moon.  I know where it will be rising with a given tree in my area.  I count the swallows that come and nest here and count the new brood that leaves.  I have a photographic memory and have over 200 art and photography books and know which picture is in which books.  I don’t like change.  BocScar, I know what contrails are.  The white lines now in the sky are not normal, they really aren’t right. 

BocScar
Without a doubt, increased contrail formation has an environmental impact.  I just challenge the notion that it is a covert government operation to block the sun or kill people.  Contrails are a consequence of air travel, just like smog is a consequence of car usage.  I’m just a regular guy and I have never seen any evidence of weather modification other than cloud seeding.  I don’t consider atmospheric research to be geoengineering nor do I consider persistent contrails to be “chemtrails”.  I’ve read the DECC document and it’s a preliminary assessment paper that concludes there are large uncertainties regarding the effectiveness, impacts, technical feasibility, cost and risks of geoengineering. 

dickyco2
BocScar.  Well said.  You must be aware these sad simple believers and their voodoo video Priests of Piffle havent the faintest idea of the Planet they are on or how it works.  But they do share a genuine concern for what they see outside above them.  And so they and you should.  A Jet exhaust made 6-8mile high layer of reflective day heat trapping cloud, Contrail-Cirrus, is a Climate Changing Cloud of Combustion.  A Global unintended Geo-engineering Environmental Disaster. 

91177info
Just google “Downing St dossier plagiarised”.  They lied, they have committed murder.  Something is NOT right here.  Me thinks they will do it again. 

WellSightedGentleman
me too, Bocscar, if hes not being paid by this industry, is totally mind wiped on all of these issues about weather modification, save your energy, Bocscar is insincere and just soapboxs for attention, good or bad.  He knows it’s real he spends everyday trying to talk “WITNESS'” down from what thy’ve seen. But he has no argument at all, he just flames through disjointed arguments, a waste of time dewd 

91177info
He was convincing, but easy to put right.  Thanks for that info. 

BocScar
-if hes not being paid by this industry, is totally mind wiped –  Once again the you demonstrate your ability to come to conclusions without facts.  The same logic leads you to believe “they” are secretly modifying the weather in full daylight and nobody but astute YouTube videographers are clever enough to notice. 

euro944t
Chemtrails are obvious to children now.  They have to say something now.  You rather them disclose it’s part of bio weapons and psych warfare Haarp EMF weapons?  Climate control is a cover story. Now run out and push this disinfo to your neighboors so they pay carbon taxes and believe Al Gore’s scam. 

dbootsthediva
Thank you for this very informative video.  Chemtrail particles are now beginning to be included in Science books and being taught in high schools.  Some Science books are referring to it as ‘PARTICLE AIR”.  See Centerpoint Learning Science 1  Essential Interactions Science Book Section 5:19 Solutions for Global Warming. Peace. 

Skywitness
Here’s and interesting patent: Powder contrail generation  United States Patent 3899144 abstract:  Light scattering pigment powder particles, surface treated to minimize inparticle cohesive forces, are dispensed from a jet mill deagglomerator as separate single particles to produce a powder contrail having maximum visibility or radiation scattering ability for a given weight material. 

BarbarianRebellion
Of coarse you realize that these are the same quacks who are intentionally poisoniong our children with vaccines and makeing males of every species sterile with plastics. And now we are letting them tinker with the only planet we have! 

stuanemma
It actually reads that like they are already doing this and are wondering whether or not doing it on Global level will work… 

1995firefly4dr
don’t want to be the ‘bad guy’ here, but all this document is saying what they have ‘researched’ to be possible solutions to their made-up crisis. It’s certainly no proof of them admitting they are doing the chemtrails currently. 

lithcowtown
very well put together congrads. Geoff 

sorrowfulsun
Excellent work. Thank you! 

WellSightedGentleman
great research!  yep obama announced in jan or feb this year that they may ‘have-to’ fill the sky with aluminium particles to deflect the sun.  theyve backed off here for four days now (touch-wood) after several weeks of constant disbursal.  I am curious as to why they have been so busy over populated areas, a bit sus in light of the foreseen risk to public health. 

BocScar
-after several weeks of constant disbursal.- Disbursal?  I someone handing out money?  What exactly do you believe they are dispersing? 

91177info
Anything they want, under the guise of global warming.  Modern medicine is all about nano particles and aerosol dispersion. 

BocScar
Modern medicine is the only reason we are not being killed by Smallpox like the 500 million that died from it in the 20th century. Nutrition and modern medicine is why our lifespans have doubled.  If “they” have a plan to kill us then better food and medicines are a very strange way to go about it. 

20OnELoVe12
GMO is not a better form of food.. Have you ever watched the commericals for medicine. HA I would rather have whatever it is then all the side effects. Also almost all of them say on rare occasion death may occure. The meds for depression, & ADD, MAKE you a zombie/ makes you want to kill your self or someone else.  AND they have cures for many things that DON’T involve MMM BUT they would rather keep taking the money. BTW Check out Denver international airport Video, and the stonehenge one also. 

BocScar
Ya right! You would rather have the disease then suffer possible side affects of the medication. Tell yourself that the next time you need Penicillin or if you ever get cancer. 

91177info
Very interesting avatar BocScar, can I ask where you got it from? 

BocScar
Google images. I think I typed the keyword “symbols”. I’ve always found the image geometrically interesting. 

20OnELoVe12
Penicillin is a natural antibiotic.  Another things I also stated was that they have cures USING natural things to cure such diseases or illness.. They to have the CURE for cancer and diabates…I CAN’T SPELL sue me if anything is wrong.. LOL.. For things such as RLS, Sleeping or non sleeping issues or if my minds run in circles do to ADD.  NO I WILL not take what they have made.  They have moved AWAY from the things nature gives us & that is scary. 

BocScar
If Penicillin is a natural derivative or not is irrelevant to my comment. You said you would prefer to suffer the disease than possible side affects from the treatment.  Good for you.  I don’t care if you can’t spell or express yourself any more than I care if you refuse to take prescribed medication. 

20OnELoVe12
I will take medicine if it is Natural that is what I’m saying.. if you don’t care why did you come back an waste time typing.  Anyways,,, CHEMtrails are real… Good luck with seeing that.. Peace to you 

BocScar
Bla bla bla… If you ever get cancer, you will take anything that will save your life, whether it’s “natural” or not. 

20OnELoVe12
All this time and you come back BLA BLA BLA you don’t know me.. If I ever develop cancer.. I WILL FIGHT each and every doctor and/or Organization for the REAL cure that they have hidden from Humanity… TRUST THAT… Cancer HAS A CURE… 

thetruthergirls
Weed oil, laetrile (B17), MMS, lots of things. 

ExquisiteDoom
Without inflamations, you CAN’T? get cancer. Thought you’d like to know. 

91177info
If the earth is allowed to do its natural thing. Extra sun and heat/radiation will evaporate MORE water from the oceans, so creating more natural cloud cover, then natural rain. They don’t want that, they only want death to tell you the truth.  They are not in harmony with the earth just their ego sociopathic conversations at the dinner table. 

WellSightedGentleman
someones getting money to fly around in no particular route to disburse particulated dust that effect the weather. To ‘disburse’ means to ‘spread out” it isnt a term money specific.  What they are disbursing is currently under investigation and double blind back testing is now being performed in several reputable universities to determine exactly whats in the air in the disbursal areas.  I told u b4 Its not an issue of belief why do you debunkers always fall back on the same emotive arguments? 

BocScar
-double blind back testing is now being performed in several reputable universities – Links please.  I’m going to go out on a limb here and guess that nowhere in any of these studies will they mention “chemtrails” or “secret government dimming operations”.  These are probably typical environmental studies but you guys use them as evidence that someone is looking into your paranoid claims. 

BocScar
You know for a fact that they are spraying but you don’t know what they are spraying.  OK.  Let’s start with this: How do you know they are deliberately spraying chemicals? 

silkcat51
What gets me when I point out/complain about this to others is that they tell me–there couldn’t possibly be a deliberate poisoning agenda, because they would be poisoning their own children/families.  Don’t know what to say back. 

bushdidit2u911
great research! there are similar documents” not as specific” on the CFR website under the title”geo-engineering” where obamas team had recently updated the site to include planetary engineering techniques! but this blows that away!  awesome work!  is there a link to the original document!  would love to see and spread to all!!!! 

stuanemma
In the description… 

danielvincentkelley
You know what might shut down this operation?  A pilots strike.  Anytime you board an aircraft or are within air shot of an airliner pilot, you should educate them about chemtrails being aluminum and pathogens and neither being healthy for people. If enough pilots knew that they were killing their own sons and daughters with their flying spraying aluminum, maybe they’d strike. Airport protests also sounds like a good idea. 

jbreezes
I just heard the second person from NC who is a patriot claim contrails ALWAYS looked the way chemtrails do.  Shows how successfully the media (with the subliminals and chemtrail backgrounds) have conditioned people to believe it’s always been like this and is normal.  The f*ckin media suceeded.  Check out ironhorse’s vid on clipser. Arrgh 

danielvincentkelley
Patriot?  More likely traitor and on the pay roll of the disinformational establishment.  I stopped a random state senator on the street outside the statehouse and asked if he noticed the chemtrails pointing at the sky.  He asked me why they’re spraying.  I told him the global warming excuse AND that it’s aluminum and pathogens and more likely REALLY to murder people.  He seemed genuinely interested and mildly aware, like he had noticed.  People pretending they don’t see it are most likely traitors. 

WellSightedGentleman
the real downside being that the generation “y” who are present in abundance online, havnt experienced alot of unmanipulated weather in their life.  Born after 85′ and these young adults have nothing to rate the appearance of the sky against.  Therefore theyre quite unconcerned with ‘them’ making clouds… easily fooled by the bogus ‘disinf’ websites that abound online.  theyve been blinded.  our hope is with the older generations who can remember. 

philwarinsky
This is the format of a decent video – loaded with information.  Thankyou. 

gangstagrannie
Yes, they do appear to spray more at night. Hands up who’s noticed the thick fog we often get overnight in the season they call ‘summer’? 

Diatonic135
dude, since february this year i’ve been seeing them.  it’s warm where i live plus i camp a lot, so since february i’ve seen an incremental increase in chemtrailing. 

GODLOVESUSSOMUCH
Hey my dear and intelligent friends! I truly hope that none of you are fooled by their attempts to say they are trying to prevent climate change and its quickening pace! Mankind may be 1% at fault, but It’s not us alone AT ALL, causing the Globe to warm, its Solar Cycles, over 30000 scientists have proven this and know it, as millions of others do! The elite know they can’t reverse it, they? know many prophetic events will occur before Global Warming’s effects even reach a height! God Bless all! 

gangstagrannie
Yes GODLOVESUSSOMUCH, you are right. ALL of the planets are warming – even the uninhabited ones – which proves without doubt that this is a ‘natural’ occurrance.  Don’t people ever think back to their school days?  THEY taught us that climate change has occurred in the past and that mankind survived it – even without paying carbon tax!  LOL to the carbon tax!  Thanks for continuing this truthful point, that any sane person can and will see, sadly many intelligent people hold on to what some corrupted or misinformed scientists, have stated as true science, when its not! Keep spreading the good truth bro, even that which is not sugar coated, just as God did not sugar coat the times we are in & nearing. There are troubles ahead, yet an eternally happy ending for those that seek the path of love & truth found in Christ!  God Bless! 

danielvincentkelley
First Chemtrails is no solution for global warming. Global warming is about done anyhow. We’re running out of oil to pollute the skys with and the north pole already melted into the oceans which has a chilling effect that has been studied and shown to cause ICE AGE in an average 3 years. Ice Age is the new problem. 2nd, it’s not about whether people will survive, of course we will. But its a matter of what living conditions we’ll experience and it’s not looking good at all. 

91177info
Very true I made a video about this 2 weeks ago. There are so many different reasons for why the spraying is happening and over night they could decide to spray something totally different. People are getting used to seeing white lines in the sky so if they decided to suddenly spray Agent US or Brucella people wouldn’t even know or question, they would say “That plane is low today” As the elite are safely underground. 

GODLOVESUSSOMUCH
Yooo MR 77info! That’s the truth of this sick matter right there, they don’t care and even though they are not at all ashamed of their evil agenda, they definitely do much more spraying at night, to secure that their plans will not be headed or stopped like history has shown their plans to be, and they will again…They don’t learn, at least that which is important! Also so true how they try to make these trails seem so casual, putting them in tv media advertisements, even games and movies! =) 

A PAGE FROM YOUTUBE

CHEMTRAIL VIDEO COMMENTS 

wow, the american media has hit a new low. no wonder there are so many stupid people who believe in chem trails, with the american population trusting everything the media throws in front of them it is no wonder that people believe in chem trails.
—————————————————————————-
chemtrails 

Chemtrails are well documented tainted airplane exhaust comtrails saturating and obliterating our skies with deadly toxins. Soda pop is an out dated term for carbonated sugar water. Why are there so many hateful naysayers trying to obscure discussion and critical research into these matters? Hmmm…
—————————————————————————-
No, why are you SO STUPID as to believe that:
1. Contrails CAN’T be persistent.
2. Their contents can be collected by trays on the ground, and NOTHING else will get in the trays.
3. That the US can AFFORD to cover the Earth in Barium, Aluminum, Silver.
4. That it is POISONING you (yet NO-ONE has died).
5. That passenger planes CAN be fitted with poison sprays, yet no-one DIES, “FINGERS”, GETS INFECTED.
—————————————————————————-
gourmet-soda-pop 

“Chemtrails” ARE SODA POP. Put them through a carbon filter for sure, and each mile of “chemtrail” will get you a crate of soda pop.
The stratosphere is stable and layered like an onion with layers of differing humidities. A “saturated” layer will NOT reabsorb the trail, which will slowly fall and form stratus or cirrus cloud. That is what you see…
Want some soda pop? I’m nuts for soda pop! Are you?
—————————————————————————-
Yo Jazzroc–when they do go live with the mass extermination and you’re dying from Ebola, enjoy that soda (you probably like the stuff that has Aspartame in it). Meanwhile, a global network of responsible citizens is forming to confront this menace.
—————————————————————————-
“Responsible citizens” are people who THINK before they ACT. In your case, you’ve a job ahead of you – to LEARN to THINK. I’d rather that people like you were supporting the NWO – you’d mess them right up!
—————————————————————————-
1) We need an comprehensive global ban on these practices. 

2) There needs to be an international inspection regime over all aircraft worldwide with criminal penalties for the existence of aerosol dispersal devices. 

3) National security exclusions to FOIA requests need to be abrogated and immediate worldwide disclosure of these practices documented. 

Document redaction should be criminalized.
—————————————————————————-
Jolly good. Best use the UN for this. Haha. But apparently (so the scuttlebutt goes!) the UN is PART of the conspiracy to, er, depopulate… 

Best draw up a World Citizens’ Army then. Then fly about from airport to airport enforcing… 

Those that don’t can get their videocams out and film you “spraying” as you go, and SHOOT you when you land… 

firing_squad1 

ALTN2

‘You’re quoting a research report.’ 

Correct. From 1992. Spraying operations began by most people’s accounts, in late 1998. 

Keep in mind, this report was authorized by Congress and sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences. This report concludes that this technique of aerial spraying is the most cost effective and efficient method (of the varius options mentioned) for increasing planetary albedo in response to a “global warming” scenario. 

Senior researchers, faculty, theoreticians, atmospheric scientists, department heads and CEO’s from a multitude of prestigious institutions took part in this report. 

The Smithsonian, Harvard, General Motors, Cambridge, MIT, Yale, World Resources Institute, National Center for Atmospheric Research, the Secretary General of the United Nations, Oxford, Brookings Institution, Columbia University, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Carnegie-Mellon University, Princeton University, Brown University, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and there’s more, if you look. 

‘It’s the title, isn’t it? Filming a harmless event with the false implication of harm can cause needless distress and foment discord, even if you believe you’re saving the world…’ 

I’d like you to start a journey of discovery, that is, if you are willing. Since we agree that even if it’s water up there, and nothing harmful at all… you will now begin to see the darker side of the science of geoengineering. 

Google this US patent: US5003186 

Notice the patent holder? Hughes Aircraft (now Raytheon) is one of the US’s largest defense contractors in the area of Aerospace. 

Read what’s in the mix, my friend… 

‘2. The method of claim wherein said material comprises one or more of the oxides of metals.’ 

‘…aluminum oxide’
‘…thorium oxide’
‘…Welsbach materials’
 

You read up on Welsbach materials. That’s your homework assignment.  

ALTN3

A method is disclosed for reducing atmospheric warming due to the greenhouse effect resulting from a greenhouse gases layer. The method comprises the step of seeding the greenhouse gas layer with a quantity of tiny particles of materials characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity or reflectivity, in that said materials have high emissivities in the visible and far infrared wavelength regions and low emissivity in the near infrared wavelength region. Such materials can include the class of materials known as Welsbach materials. The oxides of metal, e.g., aluminum oxide, are also suitable for the purpose. The greenhouse gases layer typically extends between about seven and thirteen kilometers above the earth’s surface. The seeding of the stratosphere occurs within this layer. The particles suspended in the stratosphere as a result of the seeding provide a mechanism for converting the blackbody radiation emitted by the earth at near infrared wavelengths into radiation in the visible and far infrared wavelength so that this heat energy may be reradiated out into space, thereby reducing the global warming due to the greenhouse effect. 

http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=5
,003,186.PN.&OS=PN/5,003,186&RS=PN/5,003,nh-P186
 

Very interesting. I have a few questions: 

Do commercial turbofan engine injectors safely pass these refractory solids between 10 and 100 microns? 

How do filamentary materials figure in all this? 

Or biological materials? 

You realise that a single “coating” (1 particle/sq.cm) for the US weighs 170,000 tonnes? and you’d have to renew it? 

Well, 170,000 tonnes is within any major paint manfr’s brief I suppose. But DELIVERY would be HARD. 

And treating the globe would be outside our capabilities.  

ALUMINUM/BARIUM

The Aluminum-Barium argument is rendered obsolete by the YouTube clip below 

 

Why squander fuel, occlude your skies, and poison your population, when this CHEAPER AND MORE PRACTICAL operation can be carried out in the South Atlantic and Pacific? 

The clip is one of FIVE WAYS TO COOL THE EARTH – a googlevid. 

The price of space mirrors and artificial trees is FAR too high, rocketed sulfur FAR too risky, only this idea and ocean phytoplankton feeding make sound practical and economic sense, can be begun TODAY, and carried out in WEEKS. 

Co-opting living creatures is a million times MORE EFFECTIVE than employing technology. 

  

ANDERS

I DON’T believe what any government says, ever. If it said “It’s a fine day”, I’d run out and check BOTH front AND back. And THEN I’d REMAIN NERVOUS 

What SO pisses me off is that FAR TOO FEW PEOPLE think PROPERLY 

Do you realise HOW WEAK a people is when it doesn’t have sufficient scientific understanding? When it CANNOT follow a LOGICAL train of thought? 

When it lacks the basic life-skills to SURVIVE technological collapse? 

CT supporters are HARDENED in their weakness. They FEAR science, which is in truth their ONLY salvation. They don’t know how to farm, make clothes, make things, make provisions – they barely know how to cook. If the NWO WERE to “depopulate” them, they’d murder each other at the doors of empty supermarkets 

There are MANY ironies. Earlier govt attempts to protect people from germ warfare are NOW construed as “practice” attempts at depopulation. 

SMALL experiments of geo-engineering are NOW considered PROOF of of govt attempts to reduce immunity. The list goes on and on…. 

If there is to be a conflagration (and 2012 seems about right to me!) then I REALLY DON’T WANT TO BE INVOLVED. I DO NOT WANT TO BE KILLED IN SOME GADARENE STAMPEDE! 

Maybe human “civilisations” CANNOT LAST. It is ANOTHER IRONY, it seems to me, that once we lived in continual fear of NUCLEAR SPASM (THE BANG!) and now it seems it’s going to be SOCIO-ECONOMIC COLLAPSE (THE WHIMPER!) brought about, in part, by the CHEMTRAIL PARANOIA. The rest, and greater part, of course, seems to be the moral collapse of the US govt. 

EVERY PILLAR of the “chemtrail” hypothesis proves on examination to be UTTERLY FALSE. It is based on BAD SCIENCE and LOOSE ASSOCIATION. It is a complete and utter CHIMAERA – a tragic waste of time – only distinguishable from WARFARE by its LACK OF DEATHS. 

But it has PLENTY OF VICTIMS, and PLENTY MORE TO COME… 

Jesus casting out the Gadarene Swine

Jesus casting out the Gadarene Swine

DISCOVERY?

beachcomber2008


@tgambill
“911-martial-fourth planned coup-1934-1963-1972-Executive O 11647-11731-1973-Failed-passed -Trilateral Com-1974-Obama-three weeks”
Great stuff.  Means bugger-all when “chemtrails” turn out to be plain old contrails and you turn out to be bottom of your class in atmospheric physics.  How long have you spent in this totally useless activity?  Just think how much of your life you would save if you went to school.  Just think of the good things you could have been doing instead.

irojioqopiewjr

Sure it just so happens.  Why should I believe you when all you do is spread hatred.  Only you will be on here 24/7 next week and thereafter unless you change your account name again. The vulgar way you speak to others in these chat rooms I hope I never have to see you in the hospital or call your hotline

fricktionvixen


I spend a total of 2 hours a day ridiculing those who continue sick fear mongering practices. It’s just so happened that I have a week off from work. How about you?  I am employed, I work 2 jobs to support my family.
1. I am an Emergency 911 operator and
2. Bio/chemical technician.

tgambill

Those with the alleged IQ are being very stupid about this time unless they wake up before the next 911, martial law, a fourth planned military coup.  Three planned military coups were attempted in our history as evidenced by congressional investigation in 1934, one in 1960 -1963 and that scum named Nixon planned one from 1969 to 1972, as evidenced by Executive Order 11647 and 11731 in 1972 to 1973.  Failed but passed on to the Trilateral Commission in 1974. Obama completed this plan three weeks ago.
Science is made up by the money and control by the Masons, CFR, and Rockefeller foundation money. Try again with your fantasies. History is proven to be fabricated, science goes out to the Agenda set by the emerging world order. 300 microbiologists were murdered around the year 2000 to 2002….the names are available.  You best wake up before our next civil war and martial law does.
@frick….I spend no hours, I know they are real. Factual Documented Scientific information….lol….:)) Oh, like the age of the universe, or the we now came from fish or better yet, Global warming?  Please, I’ll read Wizard of Oz another Illuminati production for fun. 🙂

irojioqopiewjr

How many hours in a day do you spend ridiculing others and spreading your lies?  24/7.  You’re on all the pages doing the same thing.  Gosh you sure do spend a lot of time 24/7 on pages that you know are just hoopla.  You must be part of the 22% of unemployed Americans.  You’ve got too much time on your hands or your getting paid by Cass Sunstein and his COINTELPRO agency.
Expanding chemtrails can be seen daily now in my town. This is not even physically possible but it happens daily. Look up!

fricktionvixen

lol great comment moneymail002.  ‘your overlords’ – My overlords are your overlords according to your belief system.  If such overlords exist they’re in power and you are just a simple taxpayer just like the rest of us.  lol  So why would you think you’ve gained freedom from them?  How many hours in a day do you spend convincing yourself that chemtrails are real?  I wish you spent and equal number of hours reading factual documented scientific information and used some constructive critical thinking as well.  Perhaps you would discover that the world isn’t such a scary place after all.

moneymail002

Why do people sit there and say their government IS doing this or that?  All of your “proof” is based on unproven assumptions and has no validity whatsoever; it originates in this RELIGION that says the government and scientists are some sort of entirely separate social tier concerned mainly with the destruction of the rest of society.  Yet for some reason you seem shocked when people with an IQ and an understanding of science above those of the average monkey refuse to believe your crap.

fricktionvixen

cointelpro?  Goodness, did it ever cross your mind that perhaps these people who are commenting in regards to the propaganda TrutherD1 is spreading, are simply stating hard scientific facts to disperse the multitude of crap built up around stupid conspiracy theories?

tgambill

The conspiracy is true.  The crap is made up of those lying about a conspiracy theory…there is no theory.  It is fact.  Most all of the events today and in the past are part of this unified conspiracy.  The evidence is irrefutable.  If you want I can send you the references, thumbnail list, of 8 pages and a chronology that is supported by scholarily research that covers over 140 pages+ a summary. bring it on.

beachcomber2008

@tgambill
I know your “list”.  It is pseudoscience.  Your “evidence” isn’t refutable because it isn’t evidence.  8 pages of pseudoscience only has value as COMPOST.  ALL your miserable “work” has been through contrailscience. com and jazzroc. wordpress, com and been torn to shreds.  Such shreds are plant food.  Are you a plant?  Do you photosynthesize?  You certainly don’t THINK.

tgambill

lol….you types are all alike.  You actually think that your useless diatribe is effective.  There isn’t a history or economic professor that could refute the truth.  They can lie, and then go to the CFR bank as they are prostitutes for the eiltes like Ayn Rand was.  You just might have a point.  Its easier for you people to lie and deny since you apparently have no soul.  The truth however won’t be denied in due time.  There is nothing you can do about that.
Oh, your overlords are getting ready to pull something. They just don’t know that they are signing their own death warrant.

beachcomber2008

@tgambill
Yeah.  It’s been tough here in Tenerife.  My God, man, it RAINED here last night!  I had to pick my way round the puddles as I walked down the town with my dear little dog to buy some bread and ham for my breakfast.  Then when I returned to my desk I discovered I was in “communication” (apparently) with a blind and stupid egocentric arsehole blowing out compost, and believing it to be “truth”.  SCIENCE refutes your miserable and pathetic lies with ease.  “History” “Economics”? LOL

fricktionvixen

Well said beachcomber2008.

barubba

YOU HAVE TO SEE THIS: ULTIMATE PROOF OF CHEMTRAIL SPRAYING!  watch?v=MRUqogeAgHo  watch?v=VLA0yejkeYM  watch?v=qSDkdOpjiSc&feature=re lated

TheOcturian1111

NASA = Admit Zero!  We are not idiots, we are a collective, we are oneness, we are 11:11 we are awakened giants.

eruditemaestro1

@beachcomber2008
Thank you so much for the compliments!  I appreciate your acknowledgement of my informative channel.  By all means, you are welcome to view my channel at any time.  Bye bye for now JAZZ(BANNED)ROC.

Derfglouglou

ffs… Nut cases from A to Z…

Razr89A

Why do people sit there and say their government isn’t doing this or that, instead of actively questioning said government?  Why defend something you have no idea about..

beachcomber2008

@Razr89A
Why propose something of which you are completely ignorant?  You do.  The reflection of this ignorance is the ignorance you so foolishly project upon others.  It is confirmed by the lies you have already accepted.  And the consequences of which, which you haven’t,  because you certainly lack the means to foresee them.  The bill for this life course direction will be paid in full by you – one day.

tgambill

@truther..those that are going after you are more than likely cointelpro. Alex Jones gets his stuff from them and in fact works for the elites as does Ron Paul (Mason) and Naomi Wolf.  They are the ones pretending to be on our side but work different roles for the globalist.

TrutherD1

@tgambill, Thanks for the heads-up – I know you’re right. For the last few months the same guys have been responding with aggression and ridicule even of legitimate and recognized science.  It quickly became obvious their whole mission here is to parrot the govt. story and ridicule and distract good people seeking honest answers.

tgambill

Now, link the chemicals with mind control, ELF and GWEN Towers, and HAARP.  This should really get your interest peaked when “DISCLOSURE” and “Day of Declaration” comes in July, with the Benjamin Creme and this weirdo named Maitreya. They work together.  The chemtrails have Barium Oxide, Aluminum Oxide (rainbow colors) and Barium Chloride on occasion.  The purpose is to destroy the immune system and in fact the chemicals have killed off the bee population.  The bees account for 80% of the natural food supply.  This will aid in the food genocide later to support Kissinger’ NSSM 200 Depopulation Plan to reduce the worlds population.  In heavy spraying causes seizures, Pre-mature births, lung problems, etc…it is a conspiracy, fact.

firstwave2

show yourself shill’

TrutherD1

@beachcomber2008, Yeah they send weather balloons once, twice a day, sometimes hourly.  If conditions say no contrails ’til 10km and you see a low-level trail it would make sense to become suspicious.

beachcomber2008

All the fraudulent Rosalind’s questions have normal scientific answers.  Patrick Minnis is the foremost expert on satellite atmospheric studies.  Particulates made of ICE CANNOT BE POLLUTION.  Viruses, fungi and bacteria, are brought down by the water in the atmosphere.  William Thomas doesn’t seem to notice that complaints come from cities, which ARE places you DO get viruses, fungi and bacteria.  A bollocks programme, and a bollocks post…

TrutherD1

@beachcomber2008, Do you work for the government?  What’s the harm in investigating?

beachcomber2008

@TrutherD1
investigating something for which there is already an accurate and cogent explanation is a waste of time which would have been better spent investigating something worthwhile.  You and the fraudulent bitch above are worse than useless – YOU are just about as harmful as you can get without actually “chemtrailing” yourself.  Do I make myself clear, DUMMY?

ar5281ar

heavy chemtrails again today! DAILY when i can see the blue skies!

lipoicacid

Research ”ENMOD” treaty at the U.N. site, State department website and read ”Between Two Ages”.  The water supply is ”poisoned” and so now is the food supply genetically modified.  This was done decades before without approval by ”representatives”.

TrutherD1

Discovery basically avoids the real issue. Just search for “chemtrails” and check any other result than this one. LOL

AgentHuggyBear

Powerful stuff!, great video mate!.  Check out peyote the band on my space.  The track “Don’t Waste Any Time” mentions this stuff.  Nice to hear this message making it into the mainstream!

sedg1

@brad213 – they are creating ‘ climate change’ to unite the world into a one world government, and to acheive the ‘mother earth ‘cults agenda.

lipoicacid

I always leave room for doubt…  but I will you are right on because I have some of the evidence.

brad213

We all breathe the same air.  What would anyone benefit from poisoning the oxygen within our atmosphere.  Wouldnt it be easier to poison our water supplies?

ar5281ar

scaremenga, you really are brillant aren’t u?  have you checked out the unemployment rate lately?  god, there’s SO MUCH work out there isn’t there!  LMAO!  p.s. the perfect slave believes he’s free, u are a perfect slave!  chemtrails daily when i can see the blue skies!

barubba

YOU HAVE TO SEE THIS: ULTIMATE PROOF OF CHEMTRAIL SPRAYING!  watch?v=MRUqogeAgHo  watch?v=VLA0yejkeYM

finodigrassio

chemtrails are there to prohibit ufos from entering our atmosphere. research the magnetic and energetic properties of chemtrails and probable
ufo propulsion systems

socaljay45001

can you tell me more about this?

MrBlueSky36863

Here’s an interview with a guy who used to be on the inside of the chemtrails project, aka clover leaf?  Give it a listen, make up your own mind.  it won’t let me post this thing for some reason, so I’ll try it without the URL, instead just put the following into the youtube search browser.  Ex government employee talks about chemtrails

mrfatandslow

i really dont know what to say. you need to slow down and think about what your saying!

Skywitness

Chemtrail spraying is boldly being done right over unprotected civilian populations, such as what is happening in the following video: v=uRoNDxAWQo4

scaremenga

Again with the go back to sleep?  Isn’t the job of “Truthers” to wake those who are asleep up?  LOL.  Yeah, I should be asking that question.  Why would they want to kill us slowly?  So they can have more work to do?  it would be easier to enslave us all, especially if they are as advanced as you people say they are.  How do you know how much they plan to eliminate? Did they publish a “NWO Manifesto” somewhere?

ar5281ar

WOW is right!  CONtrails daily when i can see the blue skies! scaremenga and mrfatandslow PLEASE go back to sleep or just get a good copy of the 911 commission report, should keep you sheeple busy for YEARS!

MsSmileyA

WOW to all u idiots who really beleive that our government is trying to take care of you=== UR A BUNCH OF IDIOTS!  It’s because of ignorant people like you that these things are going on.  Use COMMON SENSE!  Look in the sky.  When would normal planes blow out THICK FLUFFY clouds of smoke that hang in the air for hours up to a full day?  THEY DONT!  &if you’ve ever seen these planes – they will blow out the chemicals and stop.  If this was normal engine ejections they would continue the whole flight!

mrfatandslow

whats it like to live a life of such deep paranoid thoughts that you believe the goverment wants to kill you?  enjoy your fantasy world!

QuietRiot91

@scaremenga
“Why would the “NWO” want to destroy the population.”  Are you sure you should really be asking that question?  That is in fact one of their “goals” if you will.  They plan to eliminate about 90% of the worlds population.

KrazedKitten

scaremenga a lot of it has to do with weather manipulation and radar obscuration.  Unfortunately, what they’re using to do this is not healthy for us to be breathing.

golfisgreat123

no your a stuped fucking bastard when a jet engine burns its fuel you get vapor that comes out the back which is harmless water freezing

jrnesbit

problem with opinions is some of them have no base or real concrete evidence, and a lot of opinions are formed by subjective, emotional thinking instead of logical thought.  So most of these things you call opinions are instead theories or speculations.  I just saw yesterday for the first time in my life about 30 “trails” in the sky in my area.  I have a couple ideas of what they are, but I have not encountered enough evidence either way to sway me into a conspiracy opinionist.

ar5281ar

scaremenga please go back to sleep, awesome vid KarakulBrigand!  watch STESSO AEREO, SCIE DIVERSE!  4 trails only 2 persist!  awesome catch!  i see someone doesn’t like this one, they spammed u! lol! ANOTHER day with chemtrails here in s.e.wisconsin today, daily when i can see the blue skies!  just gotta observe daily and not believe WORDS that are fed to you! ps. polarized sunglasses are a priceless tool!
 
scaremenga

LOL. I thought the mission of people like you were to wake up these “sheeple” and here you are telling me to go back to sleep, into my world of “fantasies”.  I’d rather die in me sleep, metaphorically speaking, than die wide awake.  That’s just me.  ROFL.  Don’t call me an ignorant loser either.  I used to believe in chemtrails too, but evidence I found on a variety of unbiased websites, like the one with the largest datebase of aircraft photos, has obviously reversed my views.  couldn’t help this, but aren’t you guys feeding me words right now?  In the form of videos and flame comments?  You’re no better than the people you’re “fighting against”!

KarakulBrigand

Watch this vid: STESSO AEREO, SCIE DIVERSE! same plane, different trails!  Four trails two persist two do not.

brownsugar15068

set up because they know once they scare everybodi into getin the swine flu shot there are gonna be plenty of deaths oh and guess what isnt that what they want to depopulate the planet so there will be less people to control in the new world order do research because im not making any of this up to scare anyone its all fact there are tons of videos on youtube that that prove me right thanks for the complement also an f ur taught to keep an open mind then open ur mind to some research

scaremenga

I did do some research.  I was also taught that just because someone has an opposing viewpoint, doesn’t mean they are wrong.  Everyone’s entitled to their opinions, just as you are.  Were you taught that in school?  There’s tons of videos that prove me right too.  Why would the “NWO” want to destroy the population.  Who wants to rule a crippled population?  Even if they dominate the world, then they’ll have billions of sick *frankly* losers under their whips. How fun.

brownsugar15068

yes I have no clue wat a grid system or sumthin is maby I should look it up but if our govornment loves us so much why do they have fema camps set up all over the usa why do they have concrete cofins ur an idiot and yes they do because they dont want us riseing against the new world order there tryna creat okay in high school they teach you to obey obey obey and college is just more enslavement for the people why do people go to college get out an work at walmart if thats the case then you dont need to go to college u brainwashed dummy they also tryna kill us with there swine flu shoots why do we need mercury and swaline in out bodies cuz they tryna kill us and these are some of the ingr
 
scaremenga

I’m not brainwashed to obey; the exact opposite in fact.  All of my teachers, especially my AP Euro teacher, encourages us to maintain an open mind.  He links Europe’s sour past with ignorance and obedience.  And if there’s anybody against total obedience, it would be me.  Did I ever judge you personally?  No.  So there’s no purpose to call me an idiot.  If swine flu shots are so bad, don’t get them.  You’re not forced to.  Instead of accusing, maybe you should research the grid system. contrails

jnoort

I am sorry I pissed you off.  What does the space preservation act actually say about chemtrails?  Contrails can be persistent, if the humidity of the surrounding air is high.  It’s not rocket science.  If the air is dry, the contrails will sublimate quickly, turning the ice crystals into water vapour.  If the air is humid, the surrounding air can’t hold more water than it already does, and the contrail is persistent.

brownsugar15068

Umm I dont have to sit in front of a computer to view chemtrails I can walk out side ansee them all over the sky like some one is spraying chemicals in an orderly fashion so to your answer ur question you are the dumb one

scaremenga

I’m the dumb one for saying that the government doesn’t want dumb people?  Which they don’t?  Why are contrails showing up in an orderly fashions?  Why don’t you Google the flight grid for your local area, you’ll notice that it’s comprised of lines following “orderly fashion[s]”, it keeps air traffic in a structured matter.  Better yet, why don’t you get the tail numbers of these sprayers?  And then track them online?  Maybe you’ll be able to see they aren’t government-sprayers, and just innocent pax.

Circle of Confusion

with one comment

PAGE CONTENTS

Circle of Confusion – ChemCon Alert – Circus – Comment – Cone Trick – CREPUSCULAR SHADOWS

Don’t forget my other pages, links and comments are one click away at the top right of the page… 

CIRCLE OF CONFUSION

depth-of-field-1-41

Our hero here is ebendimention, who, with the careless confidence of a person who has never pushed himself to the limits of his understanding, is forging his brave new world with his videocam. He isn’t a mean-minded SOB like some of them, so I’m a little sympathetic, really. He writes to me:

Hey Jazz Roc…Take a gander at the video I posted here and watch in GREAT detail! Explain it all and you will go down in history as the most pathetic debunker of all time! Or can you do something so minuscule as clicking on my name? LOL You’ll find an enormous amount of debunking work to be done there… I’ll be waiting for your constructive criticism. 🙂

 

His video outline is this:

AMAZING FOOTAGE OF UFO MAKING TRAILS OVER MAINE SKYLINE! THEN A JET MAKING A CHEMTRAIL IS FOLLOWED BY ORB-LIKE UFO! MANY TRAILS THAT CAST SHADOWS ON HAZE ALSO POINT IN FRONT OF JETS LIKE A BLACK LASER LIGHT POINTING THE WAY! MANY SERIOUS RESEARCHERS WILL HAVE TO PAUSE FRAME BY FRAME TO SEE THE STARTLING DETAIL OF UFO AND WEIRD CHEMICAL LINES. ALL I CAN SAY IS WATCH THIS VIDEO WITH AN OPEN MIND AND BE PREPARED TO BE BLOWN AWAY BY THE SHEER MAGNITUDE AND SCALE OF THESE SECRET BLACK OPs GOING ON ALL OVER THE WORLD!

Get yourself a tripod. Learn to LOCK your videocam focus on INFINITY. Take note of the position of the sun, and try not to get distracted by plastic bags floating aloft.

Then you’ll have NOTHING to write home about… BECAUSE

1) The plane is DARK and BLUE LIGHT SCATTERING renders it invisible

2) The “UFO” is a plastic bag; they frequently get borne aloft

3) Point sources of light (sun reflected off spherical surfaces) form a CIRCLE OF CONFUSION in an out-of-focus image. (“Circle of confusion” is a great collective noun for chemtrailers!)

4) The SUN is ABOVE and BEHIND the aircraft. BENEATH it is a thin layer of CIRRUS on to which the SHADOW of the PLANE and TRAIL are PROJECTED.

Confusion, indeed! This is a classic example of ignorance… he flatly denies that shadows can be thrown onto cloud, and that the trail is between the Sun and the cloud… a case where he is unwilling to learn any geometry.

The rock’n’roll (some of my most favorite tracks of all time!) on this vid makes it worth listening to (sorry, ebendimention!). (I believe he meant to call himself EBEN DIMENSION!) 

CHEMCON ALERT

chemcon

There is a new website out there keenly focussed on the use and dangers of DHMO – called ChemCon Alert: – “The Sky Really Is Falling”.

This material has killed thousands, perhaps millions, of people in the past, and is theorized to be present in large quantities in the materials sprayed by aircraft in our skies.

Anyway, pay it a visit and see if you agree…

CIRCUS

 

circus-logo

“No one today can possibly view that circus we call the “news” on tv and radio and not see and understand that we are being had” – I HAVE KNOWN THAT FOR THIRTY YEARS.

“you will then have your answer as to who are the perpetrators” – NO YOU WON’T.

“We are forcing them to play their hand” – THE HELL YOU ARE, YOU STUPID MEGALOMANIAC!

“There can be no doubt that the “theatres” around the world, are the Imperial Elitists creation” – THEY’RE ONLY PARTLY. OTHERS GATHER POWER IN THE LOCALITY.

“By-the-way you appear to take things very personally” – OF COURSE I DO. I’M A PERSON.

“it tells all of us here that you and your “friends” have a vested interest in hiding the truth” – I HAVE NO “FRIENDS” – NEITHER YOU NOR THEY LOOK PUKKA TO ME!

“I urge people to raise their heads and do their homework” – YEAH, YEAH, LOOK UP AND DON’T LEARN SCIENCE, BUY SNAKE OIL!

snake-oil

COMMENT?

THIS is COMMENT – by Ludosophist: as succinct as it is possible to be and with a needle-sharp accuracy…

Man, you may be on to something about endemic irrationality. Since I posted that video calling into question the existence of chemtrails, I’ve gotten so many nasty comments and messages, people calling me a zombie and a shill, etc. Probably the most zealous are coming here from one of your comments, scrolling down, then dropping into my vid via your link and thinking that I’m like a tipping-point convert that they can influence. I grew up in the Catholic Church man, very averse to the smell of bullshit.

I think, however, that it would be productive to analyze why chemtrails are such a seductive thing to believe in. Part of it is the presentation, you get the propagation of a whole system of memes that seem fairly plausible, largely because they’re based on the more or less factual premise that the government would kill you if there were profit in it. Between the abuses of the constitution, a bankrupting war to secure oil for transnational corporations, 9-11 smoke and the collective hysteria that goes all the way back to Africanized bees (remember those?), it’s not surprising that people would find a global depopulation plan involving mass spraying to be grippingly plausible.

The easiest way to depopulate the planet? Constrain the supply of oil. It doesn’t even have to be intentional, the natural supply shows its expiry date, so you start buying up your shares, bidding up the futures market (futures determine what oil, already available for consumption, is marked for ownership by third parties) and bam, the tendencies of the market system endemically price people out of being able to eat. This is what people should be concerned about, they should be planting up their properties, or trying their damnedest to secure a few acres to plant up, and prepare. Economically, logistically, in real, day-to-day terms, the best thing people can do is encourage others to get into a position where they won’t starve, effecting less aggregate violence and chaos as things tighten.

The more you look to the skies and forget about the earth, the greater your chances of being doomed because you wasted your time in comment wars. 

doom3

CONE TRICK

Aviation fuel is not good to drink, but nor is it toxic in the same way that snake venom is.

When burnt and condensed it would make soda pop. A bit of filtering through charcoal might help to remove trace unburnt hydrocarbons, but after that you could sell it in your local store as soda pop. What about the sulfur dioxide, I here you ask? Well, add a little fruit cordial and it would help preserve the freshness of the fruit. The NOX? Ah, you got me there…..but when you consider that the THREE HUNDRED MILLION TONS of aviation fuel burnt every year represents an INCREASE in the atmosphere of FIVE MILLIONTHS OF ONE PER CENT, then you needn’t get too worried.

It might be better to worry about the FIFTEEN HUNDRED ACTIVE VOLCANOES that exist. Now they REALLY ARE active 24/7!

Imagine a cone 243 feet high, made of rock. That weighs a million tons. There’s quite a lot of volcanoes bigger than 243 feet high. Some are MILES high!

Now accept that weight for weight, volcanoes expel at least their own weight in gases, steam, and dust. Now imagine one thousand five hundred of them, working away, night after day, day after night.

Then consider there are possibly TEN THOUSAND ACTIVE VOLCANOES beneath the surface of the oceans. And remember that vulcanism is slowly dying on the Earth as it sheds its original heat and radioactivity.

volcano_7big_montserrat_eruption

CREPUSCULAR SHADOWS

My dear friend ebendimention came back to me, thanking me for my tutelage, so:

Hello Again Jazzy,

Its been a while, my friend. I say that in open honesty. I have learned a lot about con/chemtrails since my first ‘emotional’ days in ‘07 on the ‘YouTube Scene’.

You have actually done me and the people a great service. If there were no opposing factor, there would not be ’screaming mad’ people looking even harder for real truth.

There was one thing that you said that DID stick with me, and that was when you said, “The world needs some keen investigators”. How right you were.

I understand now that disinformants exist for many reasons. Both pro and con. For me, its been the former.

I dont need to make this long, just know that there was never any hard feelings, and nothing you ever said did I take personally. I guess the end justified the means…  at least that’s my perspective.

Please have a ‘look-see’ at my lastest videos. I know what they are not. I think even you will be amazed at what I have filmed. (I think my stargate pictures may be a little much for now)

Id really like to see your comments on them. Even if for ‘old times sake’

Take Care and ‘Keep on Spammin’ lol

Ernie

He then enclosed videos of contrails with shadows…

WHat he needed to check out was http://www.atoptics.co.uk which could have straightened him out completely on some of the totally non-intuitive aspects of crepuscular shadows. It is in the blog links to the right.

atoptics

And here is a shuttle launch with shadow it didn’t navigate down. The sound in this video is incredible – but true.

We are told that chemtrail craft navigate by “black laser light”. Really!

These people have never seen Micket Mouse’s rendition of “the Sorcerer’s Apprentice”… 🙂 I can’t provide the original Disney masterpiece, but here’s my synthesizer’s rendition of the music:
The Sorcerer’s Apprentice – Paul Dukas.

SorcerersApprentice